Chapter 15 Identifications
State Building and the Search and Order in the Seventeenth Century.
Terms in this set (56)
Trials held in England, Scotland,Switzerland, Germany and some parts of France. This practice had been part of traditional village culture. The Medieval church began to connect these peoples to the activities of the devil, thereby transforming this into a heresy that had to be wiped out. Women were the main victims.
Thirty Years War
Religion, the conflict between militant Catholicism and militant Calvinism, played an important role in this war (1618-1648). Took place in Germanic lands. It is viewed as a larger conflict for European leadership between the Bourbon dynasty of France and the Habsburg dynasties of Spain/Holy Roman Empire. Included the Bohemian phase (1618-1625), the Danish phase (1625-1629) and the Swedish phase (1630-1635). The Franco-Swedish phase ended the wars.
In the Swedish phase of the Thirty years war. He is king of Sweden (1611-1632). He was responsible for reviving Sweden and transforming it into a great Baltic power. He brought a disciplined and well-equipped Swedish army to northern Germany. He is a Lutheran who felt compelled to help Germany. He developed the first standing army of conscripts, notable for flexibility of its tactics.
Peace of Westphalia
This ended the Thirty Years war in Germany around 1648. It ensured that all german states were free to determine their own religion. It also made clear that religion and politics were separate. This marks the beginning of a modern international order in which sovereign states began to operate as equals within a secular framework.
conscript standing armies
Gustavus Adolphus developed the first standing army of this, notable for flexibility of its tactics. Composed of equal numbers of musketeers and pikemen, standing six men deep. Larger and expensive as time went on. Better disciplined, better trained and led to the education of officers in military schools. More linear rather than square formations to provide greater flexibility and mobility in tactics.
Absolute monarchy, meant that the foreign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right.
One of the chief theorists of this in the seventeenth century was Bishop Jacques Bossuet. God established kings and through them reigned over all the peoples of the world. Since kings received their power from God, their authority was absolute.
Bishop Jacques Bossuet
One of the chief theorists of "divine right" in the seventeenth century was this Bishop. He expressed his ideas in a book, "Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture." He argued that first government was divinely dained so that humans could live in an organized society. Because God would hold a king accountable for his actions, this man believed that kings faced serious responsibilities as well as real limits on their power.
Louis XIII's chief minister from 1624-1642, initiated policies that eventually strengthened the power of the monarchy. He transformed the Huguenots into more reliable subjects. He understood the influential role played by the nobles in the French State. He developed an efficient network of spies to uncover noble plots and then crushed the conspiracies and executed the conspirators, thereby eliminating a major threat to royal authority. Sent out intendants to the provinces to execute order of the central government. French debt continued its upward spiral under the cardinal.
This cardinal took power for King Louis XIV. He is Richelieu's trained successor, he wanted to dominate the government. He is an Italian who had come to France as a papal legate and then become naturalized , this man tempted to carry on Richelieu's policies until his death until 1661.
During Mazarin's rule this revolt happened. The nobles of the robe led the first revolt (1648-1649) which broke out in Paris and was ended by compromise. The second revolt begun in 1650, was led by nobles of the sword, whose ancestors were medieval nobles. They wanted to overthrow Mazarin to secure their positions and increase their own power. This second revolt ended in 1652.
Created a grand and majestic spectacle at the court of Versailles. This king and his court came to set the standard for monarchies and aristocracies all over Europe. This king believed in the theory of absolutism and called himself the "Sun King." He was able to restructure the central-policy making machinery of government because it was part of his own court and household. This king eliminated the threat of nobles and princes by removing them from the royal council, the chief administrative body of the king and overseer of the central machinery of government. Secretaries and ministers gave this king control of central policy making machinery of government and thus authority over the traditional areas of monarchial power. Did not want to allow protestants to practice their faith in largely Catholic France. Believes in the modo "One king, one law, one faith."
Edict of Fontainebleau
It provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of Protestant schools. It rejected Protestant legal rights, banned them from government meetings, and destroyed Protestant churches in an effort to regain Catholic control of heavily populated Protestant regions.
(1619-1683) He is the controller of finances. He sought to increase wealth and power of France through general adherence to mercantilism, which stressed government regulation of economic activities to benefit the state. He attempted to improve the quality of French manufactured goods. He founded new luxury industries, such as the royal tapestry works at Beauvais; invited Venetian glassmakers and Flemish cloth makers to France; drew up instructions regulating the quality of goods produced; oversaw the training of workers; and granted special privileges. He built roads and canals. He raised tariffs on foreign manufactured goods, especially English and Dutch cloth, and created a merchant marine to facilitate the conveyance of French goods. He is credited for fostering the development and manufacturing of France. He geared into making the king more powerful. Most revenue he made the more King Louis XIV used the money.
It is the residence of the king, a reception hall for state affairs, and office building for the members of the king's government, and the home of thousands of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers. It became a symbol for the French absolutist state and power of the Sun King. It is intended to overawe subjects and impress foreign powers. It became the home to the high nobility and princes of the blood from real power. This was the king's prerequisite or obtaining offices, titles,and pensions that only he could grant. You can walk through gardens, boating trips, performances of tragedies and romances, ballets, and concerts all provided source of pleasure.
Louis XIV's wars
Both the increase in royal power that Louis pursued and his desire for military glory led the king to wage war. Louis waged four wars between 1667 and 1713. He invaded the Spanish Netherlands, Franche-Comte, Holy Roman Empire, Spanish succession, and the League of Augsburg.
Peace of Utrecht
An end to the war finally came with this treaty in 1713 and of Rastatt in 1714. Philip V as the Spanish ruler, initiating a Spanish Bourbon dynasty that would last into the twentieth century, this also affirmed that the thrones of Spain and France were to remain separated.
Largely at work of the Hohenzollern dynasty, which in 1415 had come to rule the insignificant principality in northeastern Germany. In 1606, this family inherited some lands in the Rhine valley in western Germany; nine-years later they received the duchy of Prussia. This area consisted of three disconnected masses in western, central, and eastern Germany. Only the person of the Hohenzollern ruler connected them. Foundation of the Prussian state was laid by Frederick William the Great Elector (1640-1688), who came to power in the midst of the Thirty years war.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Foundation of the Prussian state was laid by this man (1640-1688), who came to power in the midst of the Thirty years war. He built a competent and efficient standing army. The army absorbed more than 50 percent of the state's revenues. He established the General War Commissariat to levy taxes for the army and oversee its growth and training. The nobles support this man's policies derived from the tacit agreement that he made with them. Gave nobles unlimited power from taxation and awarded them the highest ranks in the army. Followed fashionable mercantilism policies, constructing roads and canals and using high tariffs, subsides, and monopolies for manufactures to stimulate domestic industry. He continued to favor interests of the nobility at the expense of the commercial and industrial middle class towns. Laid the groundwork for Prussian state; his son contributed also.
In 1606, this family inherited some lands in the Rhine valley in western Germany; nine-years later they received the duchy of Prussia. Only the person of this family's ruler connected them.
Treaty of Karlowitz
In 1699, Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia, thus establishing an Austrian Empire in southeastern Europe. Austria gained possession of the Spanish Netherlands and received formal recognition of its occupation of the Spanish possessions in Italy.
Zemsky Sobor, or national assembly chose a member from this family (1613-1645) as the new tsar, beginning a dynasty that lasted until 1917. At the top, tsar claimed to be a divinely ordained autocratic ruler.
Russian society was dominated by an upper class of landed aristocrats who, in the course of the seventeenth century, managed to bind their peasants to the land. An abundance of land and a shortage of peasants made this desirable to the landowners.
the Orthodox Church
In the seventeenth century, merchant and peasant revolts as well as schism in this Russian Church created a very unsettled conditions.
Peter the Great
(1689-1725) He noticeably accelerated the westernizing process. He went to the west in 1697-1698 and returned to Russia with a firm determination to westernize (Europeanize) his realm. He wanted the European technology to be in Russia. He created a navy and reorganized the army. He recognized that the senate should supervise the administrative machinery of the state while he was away on military duties. He wanted "colleges" or boards if administrators entrusted with special functions. He divided Russia into 8 provinces but later, in 1719, he divides them up into 50. He shared his concept of honest service and duty to the state. He demanded that all members of the landholding class serve in either military/civil offices. He instituted the Table of Ranks to create opportunities for non nobles to serve the state and join the nobility. Tried to increase exports and develop new industries while exploiting domestic resources like iron and mines in the Urals. Gained state control of the Russian Orthodox Church. He ordered preparations of the first Russian book of etiquette to teach Western manners. Allowed women to marry whomever they chose and take off the veil they wear on their head. Attacked Sweden in the summer of 1700.
Social gatherings are to be held here three times a week in the large houses where men and women could mix for conversation. Constructed a new city (this area), it remained the capital until 1917.
Great Northern War
Peter the Great attacked Sweden in the summer of 1700. He smashed Danes, flattened Poles, and with his army started this war. (1701-1721).
Vienna and the Ottoman Empire
Tried to complete their conquest of the Balkans where they had been established since the fourteenth century. The resistance from the Hungarians kept them from advancing. The Turks seized Belgrade, Hungary, but to conquer this area was harder for them. This empire extended their power to the mediterranean. They possessed a highly effective government system led by powerful sultans or grand viziers (prime ministers).
Polish diet, was a two-chambered assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who were also members. Monarchs had to agree to share power with in this (in effect to nobles) in matters of taxation, foreign and military policy, and the appointment of state and official judges. This produced disastrous results. The Librium veto in 1652, whereby the meetings of this could be stopped by a single dissenting member, reduced government to virtual chaos.
the House of Orange
Occupied the stadholderate in most of the seven provinces and favored the development of a centralized government with themselves as hereditary monarchs. The States general, an assembly of representatives from every province, opposed this family's ambitions and advocated a decentralized or republican form of government. United provinces turned against this family member of this house to establish a monarchial regime.
By the beginning of the seventeenth century, this city has replaced Antwerp as the financial and commercial capital of Europe. In 1570, this city had 30,000 inhabitants. The government was to approve an "urban expansion plan" that could increase the cities territory. This city is known as commercial and financial center of Europe. Its port was the chief port for the Dutch, West Indian, and East Indian trading companies. It allowed large quantities for investment.
The Tudor dynasty became extinct, and this family line of rulers was inaugurated with the accession to the throne of Elizabeth's cousin, King James VI of Scotland.
Wanted James to eliminate the episcopal system of Church organization used in the Church of England (in which the bishop or episcops played the major administrative role) in favor of a Presbyterian model. James refused because he realized that the Anglican Church was a major support of monarchial authority.
English Civil War
(1642-1646) Most important to Parliaments success was the creation of the New Model army, which was composed primarily of more extreme Puritans, doing the battle of the Lord. Parliament ended the first phase of the war with the capture of king Charles I in 1646.
One of the group's leaders of the New Model Army in the English Civil War. His crusaders were well disciplined and trained in the latest military tactics. Parliament ended the first phase of the war with the capture of king Charles I in 1646. Engaged in a second civil war (1648) that ended with a victory and capture of the king. Crushed Catholic uprising in Ireland. Smashed radicals by force. He found it difficult to work with Parliament. Died in 1658.
Advocated such advanced ideas as freedom of speech, religious toleration, and a democratic republic, arguing for the right to vote for all male householders over the age of twenty-one. Also called for annual Parliaments, women's equality with men, and government programs to care for the poor.
Of the Stuart monarchy ended England's time of troubles. Parliament kept much power it had won: its role in government was acknowledged, the necessity for its consent to taxation was accepted, and arbitrary courts were still abolished. The New Parliament meet to make Anglican Church the leading church, by the Test Act.
The Test Act
Propelled by a strong anti-Catholic sentiment, 1673, specifying that only Anglicans can hold military and civil offices.
(1685-1688) virtually guaranteed a new constitutional crisis for England. He was the primary cause of conflict between king and parliament. His successors were his Protestant daughters Mary and Anne. This king was a Catholic King.
William and Mary
William welcomed this opportunity to fight france with England's resources. These people raised an army and invaded England while James, and his family fled to France.
The events of late 1688 set this revolution in motion. This Revolution settlement confirmed William and Mary as monarchs. James offered the throne to his family members, which they enacted the Bill of rights. Struggle between the king and Parliament. Deposed one king and establishing another, Parliament had demolished the divine right theory of kingship and confirmed its right to participate in government.
English Bill of Rights
Affirmed Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes and made it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament by stipulating that standing armies could be raised only with the consent of Parliament. Kings should not interfere. Helped fashion a system of government based on the rule of law and freely elected Parliament, thus laying the foundations for a constitutional monarchy. Did not settle the religious questions that had played such a large role in England's troubles in the seventeenth century.
(1588-1679) lived during the civil war, alarmed by revolutionary upheavals in England. Has been associated with the states claim to absolute authority over its subjects, a topic that he elaborated in his major treatise on political thought known as the Leviathan published in 1651. Claimed that in the state of nature, before society was organized human life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Humans were guided by animalistic instincts and ruthless struggle for self-preservation. People contracted to form a commonwealth "That great Leviathan." Placed collective power into the hands of sovereign authority preferably a single ruler, who served as executor, legislator, and judge. Subjects may not rebel; if they do what must be suppressed.
(1632-1704) Viewed the exercise of political power differently from Hobbes. Experience of English politics during the Glorious revolution was incorporated into a political work called "Two Treatises of Government." Believed Humans lived then in a state of equality and freedom rather than a state of war. Humans had certain inalienable rights, people found it difficult to protect these rights. Government would protect the rights of people while the people would act reasonably toward government.
Emerged in Italy in the 1520's and 1530's. This reflected this environment in its deliberate attempt to break down the High Renaissance principals of balance, harmony, moderation. This term derives from critics who considered their contemporary artists to be second-rate imitators, painting "in the manner of" Michelangelo's late style. Painters distorted the rules of proportion by portraying elongated figures that conveyed a sense of suffering and a strong emotional atmosphere filled with anxiety and confusion.
(1541-1614) Domenikos Theotocopoulos was from Crete, but after studying in Venice and Rome, he moved in the 1570's to Spain, where he became a church painter in Toledo. This painting has unusual shades of yellow and green against an eerie background of turbulent grays, reflect the artists desire to create a world of intense emotion.
Italian architect and sculpture. (1598-1680) He completed Saint Peter's Basilica at the Vatican and designed the vast colonnade enclosing the piazza in front of it. In the interior of Saint Peter's Basilica, the drew "Throne of Saint Peter" that hovers above mid-air. He depicts a moment of mystical experience in the life of the sixteenth-century Spanish Saint.
(1593-1653) Born in Rome, she studied painting under her father's direction. In 1616 she moved to Florence and began a successful career as a painter. She became the first woman to be elected to Florentine Academy of Design.
Began in Italy in the last quarter of the sixteenth century and spread to the rest of Europe. It is embraced by the Catholic reform movement, as is evident at the Catholic Courts. It spread to all of Europe and Latin America. These artists sought to bring together the Classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the sixteenth-century ethos. These paintings are magnificent and richly detailed. They also have dramatic effects to heighten emotional intensity.
Peter Paul Rubens
(1577-1680) a prolific artist and an important figure in the spread of the Baroque from Italy and other parts of Europe. In his art, bodies in violent motion, heavily fleshed nudes, a dramatic use of light and shadow, and rich, sensuous pigments converge to express intense emotions. Most famous is "Judith Beheading Holofernes" a dramatic rendering of the biblical scene in which Judith slays the Assyrian general to save her town from the Assyrian Army.
French remained committed to the Classical values of the High Renaissance. Emphasis on clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmony of design, a rather austere version of the High Renaissance style. This continued the Baroque's conception of grandeur in the portrayal of noble subjects, especially those of Classical antiquity.
Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606-1669) Painted opulent portraits and grandiose scenes that were often quite colorful, He turned away from materialistic success to follow his own artistic path, he lost public support and died bankrupt. He became more introspective as he grew older. He refused to follow his contemporaries. His paintings depicted scenes from biblical tales. This artist stands out as the one great Protestant Painter of the seventeenth century.
(1564-1616) Son of a prosperous glove maker from Stratford-upon-Avon. He appeared in London around 1592. He is known for writing plays but he was also an actor and shareholder in the chief company of the time, the Lord Chamberlain's Company. He was instrumental in codifying a language that was still in transition. He exhibited a remarkable understanding of the human condition.
Lope de Vega
(1562-1635) was from the middle-class background. He is an incredibly prolific writer; almost one third of his fifteen hundred plays survive. The plays are witty, charming, action packed, and realistic. He made no apologies for the fact that he wrote plays to please his audiences.
Derived both their themes and their plots from Classical Greek and Roman sources (1639-1699). The "Phedre" has been his best play, this man followed closely the plot of Hippolytus by the Greek tragedian Euripides. He focused on conflicts between love and honor, or inclination and duty that characterized and revealed the tragic dimension of life.
(1622-1673) enjoyed the favor of the French court an d benefited from the patronage of King Louis XIV. He wrote, produced, and acted in series of comedies that often satirized the religious and social world of his time. In "Tartuffe" he ridiculed religious hypocrisy. His satires however, sometimes got him into trouble. Only protection from the King saved this play writer.
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