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Mathematical Terms - Algebra 1
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Terms in this set (40)
Data
A collection of related observations
Qualitative (categorical) data
Involves variables that cannot be measured numerically. (Gender, Sport, Color, Shape)
Quantitative (numerical) data
Involves variables that can be measured numerically (Height, Age, Number of people)
Frequency
The number of times each value occurs in the data set
Histogram
A graph of data that groups the data based on intervals and represents the data in each interval by a bar
Dot plot
A plot of each data value on a scale or number line
Mean
Average of values
Median
Middle value when the values are listed in order
Mode
Most common value
Bimodal
Data set has two modes
Symmetrical
Well proportioned; balanced; the same on both sides
Skewed
Unequal dot plot
Two-Way Frequency Table
Shows possible relationships between two sets of categorical data
Box-and-Whisker Plot
Data displayed that divides a set of data into 4 parts
Minimum value
The lowest data value
First Quartile
The median of the lower half of data
Second Quartile
Separates the set into two halves
Third Quartile
The median of the upper half
Maximum value
The greatest data value
Range
Difference between the maximum and minimum values
Interquartile Range (IQR)
The distance between the first quartile and the third quartile. This accounts for 50% of the data
Outliers
Values much lower or much higher than most of the data
Box-and-Whisker Outliers
Outliers fall more than 1.5 times the IQR
Standard Deviation
A way to measure the "spread" of a data set, i.e. how widely data values differ from the mean
Variablility
The extent to which the data set diverge from the mean value. Also refers to the extent to which these data points differ from each other
Four common measures of variablity
Range
Mean
Variance
Standard Deviation
Mu
Population mean
X bar
Sample mean
Sigma
Standard deviation of the entire population
S
Standard deviation of a sample
Normal Distribution
A bell shaped systematic curve with the highest point centered at the mean
Bivariate data
Includes two sets of quantitative data
Scatter Plot
A graph that relates two groups of data. Represent bivariate data
Clustering
Data values occur close together
Association/Correlation
The relationship between two variables that are statistically dependent
Trend Line
A line that models the relationship between two variables in a scatter plot
Line of Best Fit
The trend line that best models the relationship
Residuals
The prediction error calculated by subtracting the predicted value from the actual value
Residual Formula
Actual y value - predicted y value
Correlation Coefficient, r
Is a statistical measure of the linear relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable. Its value varies between -1 and 1.
1 = perfect correlation
0 = no correlation
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