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Summer Hell


____ is a group of similar looking organisms that interbreed in nature and produce viable fertile off spring
_____ is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
_____is a group of populations of different species in an area


movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin


a plot of the temperature and precipitation in a region


area of intergradation- may be wide or narrow


the study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time

life table

an age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population


best made lifetable-a group of individuals of the same age being monitored

survivorship curve

graphic way of representing the data in a life table

Type III

high death rates for the young, then a slower death rate for survivors

Type II

the death rate is constant over the organism's life span

Type I

: low death rates during early and middle life, then an increase among older age groups

Classification of Survivorship Curves (3)


reproductive table

an age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population

Another Name for a fertility schedule

reproductive table

factors to life history

-The age at which reproduction begins
-How often the organism reproduces
-How many offspring are produced during each reproductive cycle

Life history traits are what?
Where are they reflected in?

Life history traits are evolutionary outcomes reflected in the development, physiology, and behavior of an organism


or big-bang reproduction, reproduce once and die


repeated reproduction, produce offspring repeatedly

Highly variable or unpredictable environments : favor which kind of reproduction?

big-bang reproduction : semelparity

dependable environments may favor repeated reproduction : favor which kind of reproduction?

favor repeated reproduction : iteroparity

Organisms sometimes have finite resources what could this lead to?

Trade offs between survival & reproduction

Exponential Pop Growth

is population increase under idealized conditions it is a J-shaped curve

^N/^t = rN

n = population size / t-time / r = per capita rate increase

per capita rate increase =?

r= birth-death

Rebounded populations cold be shown by?

j shaped curves of exponential growth

Does exponential growth continue forever?

no there eventually is a CARRYING CAPACITY (K)

Carrying Capacity

(K) maximum population size the environment can support

K-selection, or density-dependent selection

, selects for life history traits that are sensitive to population density

r-selection, or density-independent selection,

selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction

In density-dependent populations, birth rates fall or rise? death rates? with population density

birth rates fall / death rates rise with population density

In density-independent populations, birth rates fall or rise? death rates? with population density

birth rate and death rate do not change with population density

Negative Feedback Examples

Density-dependent birth and death rates

Negative Feedback Examples are affected by what?

competition for resources, territoriality, disease, predation, toxic wastes, and intrinsic factors

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