PSYCH 566 Exam 2
Terms in this set (131)
Charlie decides to sell fish with this advertisement: "Research shows that people love to have their choice of fresh, frozen, or smoked fish. Chillin-Guppy and Zippy-fish only offer frozen fish, but Charlie's Fish has all three. Where do you want to go to get your fish?" Charlie's advertisement is using a/an
True or False: The following radio advertisement features an explicit conclusion. CR Tan uses the newest and greatest in melanin-blast-onium technology to perfect your tan. If you want to look tan, you need to come to CR Tan.
According to research by Sawyer and Howard (1991), when is it best to use an implicit message?
when the audience is very interested in the topic
How do the results from Sawyer and Howards study relate to the general predictions of dual-process models of persuasion (ELM/HSM)?
The results demonstrate that implicit messages work best when audiences are processing information centrally
Given the research findings of Kardes et al. (1994), which audience would be most persuaded by an implicit message showing a dentist selected Crest toothpaste from a shelf?
A biology major who knows a lot about teeth and bacteria
What was the general conclusion of Martin et al (2003, 2004) with regards to implicit messages?
implicit messages are most effective with those high in need for cognition
with regards to dual-process and unimodal theories of persuasion, which of the following would the apparent number of arguments be considered?
a heuristic rule, a peripheral cue to the amount of support for the message and also a piece of evidence for the amount of support for the message
If you know that your parents are very involved in your life and care about what you are doing, how should you try and convince them to let you go out of state to a rock concert
with 2 longer, stronger arguments
Which of the following times are you likely to convince a professor to give you an extension on an assignment by using a quick barrage of "so-so" arguments?
when she/he is swamped with grading, when he/she is exhausted from a long day of class and lab, and also when he/she is drunk at a conference reception
Abby and Giovanni attended an art show and listened to an artist speak about the lack of funding for the arts. Abby did not find the topic personally relevant. On the contrary, Giovanni was very passionate about the topic. Based on the ELM, how will Abby and Giovanni process the speaker's argument?
Abby will focus on the amount of arguments provided, and Giovanni will focus on the strength of the arguments
What is the mere exposure effect?
When repeatedly exposed to a previously neutral stimulus, audiences will start to like it more, and when repeatedly exposed to a previously mildly positive stimulus, audiences will start to like it more.
Given this knowledge, how might you leverage the power of the mere exposure effect to benefit your social cause?
by posting fliers and or signs around student-heavy areas on campus, by creating facebook pages/groups and inviting everyone possible, and by giving talks/presentations about social cause at various student student organizations on campus
Which of the following sayings best describes Mere exposure theory
things tend to grow on us
Which parameter of the unimodel would repeating a message influence (hint: Think specifically of the findings of Claypool et al., 2004)?
processing task difficulty
Generally, research on argument order suggests that when organizing a speech, ____ is your best strategy for being the most persuasive.
putting your strongest argument either first or last
Miller & Campbell (1959) found evidence of a recency effect in persuasion when...
the second of two messages was more persuasive when presented with a break in between
Furnham (1986) found evidence of a primacy effect when...
subjects were highly motivated to process the message
Knowledge of the primacy/recency effect generally suggests that when organizing a speech, put the information that you really want people to remember ____.
last and first
According to studies on order and message effects (e.g., figure 9.2), primacy effects seem to prevail when we ________ vote for one of the candidates.
hear one candidate speak right after another and then wait a week before we
Binky and Babbs are running for political office and will each have a chance to give one televised speech. The schedule for speeches looks like this: one candidate will speak for 10 minutes and then the second candidate will speak for 10 minutes as soon as the first speaker is finished. A week later, the public will cast votes. Based on what you know about order effects and persuasion, if Binky can choose when he wants to speak, which of the following options should he choose?
he should speak before Babbs
When is it better to present only the arguments supporting your position?
your audience has less than a HS degree and your audience already strongly supports your position
A 2 sided message tends to be ineffective if
opposing arguments are only acknowledged, but not refuted, in the message
True or False: Bringing up the opposing side to your argument is always an effective persuasive tactic.
True or False: You should always refute the opposing side to your argument when you bring it up.
McGuire & Papageorgis (1961) found that inoculation against a specific argument was...
effective against not only that specific argument, but other attacking arguments as well
How does inoculation actually work (i.e., what are the underlying psychological principles) to prevent future attitude change?
by always causing the audience to generate counter-arguments
Based on findings from Pfau et al. (1996), with what audience might the strategy be most effective in the long run?
individuals with high self-esteem
In her opening remarks to a jury, a defense attorney informs the jury that the prosecution will try to portray her client as a monster. She asks them to keep an open mind until they've heard all the evidence. The defense attorney is using
True or False: Forewarning can operate on different underlying psychological principles than inoculation (i.e., the process that makes forewarning effective as a persuasion prevention device can be different than the process the makes inoculation effective).
Which of the following statements regarding inoculation theory is most accurate?
inoculation works, even if receivers encounter novel arguments they were never inoculated against
which fo the following is NOT a primary dimension of credibility?
Which of the following is NOT a secondary dimension of credibility
Whether a source possesses credibility is determined primarily by
which of the following statements regarding credibility is false
credibility can't be measured
At one point in his career Pauli Shore was incredibly popular and considered a huge success. Today Pauli Shore would struggle to land a role in a movie. That is, his credibility as a comedic star has decreased over time. This exemplifies what characteristic of credibility?
its dynamic nature
Which of the following is a peripheral cue that might lead one to perceive that a source has expertise (a primary dimension of credibility)?
a title such as "Dr"
Which of the following is a peripheral cue that might lead one to perceive that a source has goodwill (a primary dimension of credibility)?
a soft spoken and genteel nature
Advertisements which display the "As Seen On TV" logo, or ads in the phone directory which display the Christian "Ichthys" sign, are attempting to bolster which credibility dimension?
what are the practical implications for Rinds (1992) finding on expertise
people perceived to be an expert at one thing might be more persuasive in an unrelated area
a discounting cue prompts receivers to
ignore or underestimate a message based on its source
In regards to credibility, one reason that many companies have begun to rely on fictional (e.g., the Geico Gecko) rather than real (e.g., Tiger Woods) spokespersons is that
they won't become embroiled in a scandal
When an endorser's public persona is projected onto a brand, the brand's image is incorporated into the consumer's self-concept. This view is based upon
the meaning transfer perspective
Based on your knowledge of the Dual Process Models of Persuasion, what specific recommendation would you give to someone that has a good (strong) argument, but is perceived to be a low-credibility source by their audience?
they should start off by really emphasizing the personal relevance of the message
Again, knowing what you do about the dual process models...what about someone who is seen as having high-credibility but who has a poor (weak) argument?
they should start off by distracting their audience
Based on the findings of Benoit & Strathman (2004), which strategy below is most advisable for increasing one's credibility?
clearly state a source's qualifications prior to presenting information from that source
Joe was browsing through the internet and happened to come across an interesting statistic that said 74% of college students were born during the winter months. While that seemed doubtful at the time, later that year Joe brought up the statistic in conversation, and told his friends that it was a credible statistic. This is an example of...
an absolute sleeper effect
Which of the following statements regarding an absolute sleeper effect is most accurate?
while it can be created in a laboratory setting, it would be extremely difficult to reproduce in real life
The situation in which a message presented by a high credibility source becomes less persuasive over time, while a message from a low credibility source becomes more persuasive over time, is called
the sleeper effect
How might introducing cognitive load during a message from a low-credibility source help create an absolute sleeper effect?
The cognitive load will interfere with proper encoding, leading to a decaying and dissociation between the message and the source
How might the issues of motivation and ability influence how successful we are at impression management?
we need to be motivated and cognitively able to carefully manage how we present ourselves
Bessie looks up to her older sister, Mallory, as a role model. One day, Bessie sees Mallory smoking a cigarette. Mallory is embarrassed and engages in "facework" to restore her face in Bessie's eyes. Which concept best illustrates her attempt to manage her self-image?
impression management theory
Jenny is on a date with the guy that she has had a crush on for over a year. She is trying desperately to manage every detail of her appearance, including the way she looks, the way she speaks (tone, pitch, waver, etc.), and the way she acts. All of this appearance management is likely causing a heavy cognitive load. So, when Jenny's date asks her what she thinks about a certain political topic she is most likely to...
respond with a n answer very similar to what John Stewart said on the daily show, which she watched just before the date
According to Ting-Toomey (1988), Facework involves negotiating one's social ___ and social ___ with others.
According to Gass & Seiter, companies use ________________ to enhance their credibility.
the halo effect
What is Carli's (2004) explanation for why research has found that men were more credible and persuasive than women in certain situations?
the perception is due to gender-stereotypes, there is no real objective difference
True or False: Someone with low self-esteem is always easier to persuade than someone with high self-esteem
John is an outgoing, fun person. John is also kind of a chameleon. When he goes out with friends to country bars, he is a line-dance fanatic. When he goes to museums then he is an art freak. If somebody has a strong opinion about a topic, John will usually endorse it as well. John is probably...
a high self-monitor
Matt is also an outgoing, fun person. When he goes out with friends to country bars though, he sits at the table and chats because he doesn't really like line-dancing. When he goes to museums, he confesses that he does not know much about art. If somebody has a strong opinion about a topic, Matt will endorse it only if he agrees. Matt is probably...
a low self-monitor
Low self-monitoring is an individual difference variable. The underlying reason(s) for its effect on behavior is/are... (Note. Look beyond your textbook to help with this question - for instance, you might type "low self monitoring ability" into google scholar)
the motivation to appear sincere to ones beliefs and values and also the lack of ability to adapt to new social situations and social nuances
Which of the following best characterizes high self-monitors (Snyder and DeBono, 1989; DeBono, 2006; etc.)?
they are more easily influenced by a relevant reference group, they are more easily influenced by the possibility of earning praise from others and also they are more easily influenced by image-based messages.
How did Moon (1999) (first paragraph on page 168 of textbook) test whether the positive influence of proximity can be explained by accessibility or similarity?
Moon had participants communicate via computer, which held accessibility constant, and found that proximity leads to positive influence due to similarity .
Given the findings of Benoit & Strathman (2004), and your knowledge of motivated biases, what will your audience attend to and what will they inhibit if they perceive you to be very credible from the start of a presentation (e.g., if before you get on stage, a colleague introduced you as a leading scholar in the field)?
attend to the strengths of the presentation and inhibit the weaknesses
What are Cialinis three categories of symbols of authority
titles, clothes, and trappings
What is the door in the face technique
When you ask for a larger request than you want so that when it is rejected by the person you can ask for a smaller request and they will more likely think that it is seen as a gift and in return, do it for you.
Describe the 4 conditions under which an initial commitment will be strongest.
active, public, internally motivated and also effortful
What percentage of participants in Milgram's (1963) landmark study obeyed the experimenter all the way to the highest (and "lethal") shock voltage?
T/F: Milgram's (1963) original design had the experimenter (the authority), the participant, and the confederate (who was ostensibly getting shocked) in the same room, separated by approximately 10 feet.
why were so many people in the general public "shocked" by Milgrams (1963) results?
Because his results demonstrated that even the average/normal person could commit atrocious acts under the right conditions
T/F: Milgram's (1963) results have been replicated in a similar sample within the past 20 years.
Some scholars claim that the human tendency to obey authority is, on average, an advantageous behavior and that falling in line behind a leader helps groups survive and thrive. What theory best accounts for this argument?
Many tried to suggest that Milgram's (1963) findings were only due to methodological anomalies. Which of the following was NOT a proposed alternative explanation for Milgram's (1963) findings?
the socioeconomic status of higher-middle class participants were more likely to obey
What was the finding from a replication regarding gender and obedience?
men and women were equally willing to harm another person when instructed
T/F: The main reason that Milgram (1963) found these results was that the participants were not trained for jobs in which they had to routinely deal with authority figures (for instance, like a nurse who has to deal with doctors all of the time). If a sample was used that was accustomed to working with authority figures, the results would not be replicated.
Which of the following is NOT one of the three categories of symbols of authority that Cialdini identifies?
How do titles work to cue authority and thus obedience?
audience perceives the person to be of increased prestige (and this status)
How might you outfit a mall security guard to increase the likelihood that those loitering tough guys will quietly follow orders to vacate the property?
with a uniform that is highly similar to the police departments uniform
If the audience is motivated and cognitively able, symbols of authority should have...
less effect than if the person was not motivated or able
Symbols to authority operate as a _______________ according to the dual process models of persuasion.
What is the relationship between perceived status and perceived size?
more important stimuli are perceived as larger than they really are
In what way did titles influence obedience in Hofling et al.'s (1966) study with actual health care professionals?
titles resulted in 21 of 22 nurses almost administering a lethal dose of an un-approved drug to a patient
T/F: "Officer Scott" wasted time by chaining so many commands together. It would have been more efficient and just as effective if he simply introduced himself as an authority and then requested the extreme demands you read about at the end of the ordeal.
How does the issue of escalating demands aid in people's willingness to ultimately follow orders without question?
commitment to the order is increased with each compliance, by escalating demands, each new request isnt seen as so extreme compared to it being asking in isolation, and also by having a series of requests, self-perception theory exerts influence-people look back at their own behavior and reaffirm their committed attitude
In what specific ways did "Officer Scott" establish himself as an authority figure?
he used the title officer, he often spoke in police jargon and he seemed to have extensive knowledge of the matter at hand
Some scholars have suggested that a fast-food restaurant like McDonalds is an environment where something like this is more likely to happen, why do you think that is?
because it is an environment the employees are repeatedly trained to obey and also it is a fast and hectic environment where cognitive load is easily and often used
Which of the following best applies what we know about perceptual contrast in gaining compliance?
we can make a request seem small by pairing it with another very large request and also we can make a request seem large by pairing it with another very small request
Which of the following is NOT a condition in Langer et al.'s (1978) experiment testing the role of justification in gaining compliance?
What was the rate of compliance with a request that contained a minimal justification (i.e., just contained the word "because" and a non-additive phrase
How can this be applied to an advertising campaign with an explicit request to go online and view a YouTube video?
make sure that any compliance request has at least a minimal justification
Why would it be beneficial for waiters and waitresses to give customers chocolates or mints along with the bill?
because it would activate reciprocity, creating the need for customers to repay the gift
T/F: Based on Regan's (1971) research findings, we know that the rule of reciprocity can be invoked by doing someone a favor, regardless of whether or not they like us.
In what way is the rule of reciprocity a social norm?
our society expects that when a person is given a favor, they return the favor
What evolutionary advantages does the rule of reciprocity offer to social groups?
it allows trust between people (if I do something, i will receive payment or a return later), building stronger groups and societies
T/F: According to Singer et al. (2000), offering a small favor ahead of a request is more effective in gaining compliance than offering a large reward for complying with the request.
T/F: Graduate students defending their dissertations often provide light food (snacks) and drink for their dissertation committee. This can be considered an instance of (attempting to) invoking reciprocity.
The research evidence (e.g., Miller et al., 1976) suggests that beginning with a large request and then conceding to a moderate request leads to
more agreement with the moderate request, and a lot more actual compliance
Explain how the door-in-the-face technique works in terms of perception.
perceptual contrast makes the second request appear smaller than normal
Explain how the door-in-the-face technique works in terms of reciprocation.
the retreat from initial to second request is seen as a gift, which invokes the rule of reciprocity
What research evidence did Cialdini et al. (1975) offer to support the door-in-the-face?
after rejecting a request to chaperone juveniles 2 hours per week for a minimum of 2 years, 50% of people agreed to take a group to the zoo one time, This is compared to the 17% of people who agreed to take them to the zoo without any initial request
What important caveat did Schwarzwald et al. (1979) add to using the technique?
that the initial request must be reasonable (not too extreme)
Why is Schwarzwald et al.'s (1979) caveat so important?
when people realize you are "gaming" them, they no longer feel motivation to reciprocate
What did Miller et al. (1976) find in regards to the Door-in-the-Face (DITF) effect?
of participants who had agreed to volunteer at a community health clinic, 85% who were DITF'ed actually followed through on their commitment and showed up to work, whereas only 50% of those who were not actually followed through with their commitment
How about Cialdini & Ascani (1976)?
in regards to the Door-in-the-Face (DITF) effect?
of participants who were donating blood, 84% agreed to donate again in the future if they were initially DITF'ed, compared to those who were not DITF'ed, where only 48% agreed to donate again in the future
In what way is remaining consistent cognitively advantageous?
it reduces the need to effortfully search for new information, saving one's cognitive capacity
Which of the following sayings most closely reflects the cognitive judgment rule (i.e., the heuristic) associated with remaining consistent as a cognitive advantage?
if it aint broke, dont fix it
How can consistency be a shield from the dissonance that would result from inconsistency?
remaining staunchly consistent with prior beliefs precludes the consideration of new perspectives or ideas, ensuring that no imbalance will occur
T/F: When you act in a manner that is inconsistent with your prior attitudes, you are guaranteed to feel major cognitive dissonance.
T/F: When you act in a manner that is inconsistent with your prior attitudes, you will feel cognitive dissonance to the extent that you recognize the inconsistency, and find the inconsistency (i.e., the domain of life) personally important.
T/F: Consistency is an evolutionarily advantageous trait
Which of the following celebrities should gain the social benefits of consistency?
Derek Jeter, a baseball player that served as captain of his team for many years
Which of the following celebrities should suffer the social consequences of inconsistency?
Lindsey Lohan, an actress who was fired from a few movies for her partying lifestyle
How can you combine self-perception theory (Bem, 1972) and the idea of consistency to create, in your target audience, the desire to think, feel, or act the way you want them to?
your message can have a component that asks them to think of certain behaviors they have done in the past, then it can demonstrate how those behaviors support your social cause, and also your marketing campaign can ask them to think of 2 things they like about your social cause
T/F: The underlying psychological goal for question #9 is to get people to believe that they have already made some type of commitment to your social cause.
Given your knowledge of cognitive dissonance theory and commitment & consistency, when would it NOT be psychologically appeasable for a person to change his/her attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors?
when the person is extremely committed to their original viewpoint
Imagine that you're headed to Tahiti for spring break next year. (That would be nice, huh?) How can you apply Moriarty's (1975) findings to help reduce the likelihood that someone will steal your stuff while you're skinny-dipping?
ask one specific person near you to watch your stuff while you're away
When would you expect your friend's commitment to seeing the movie "Magic Mike" to be the greatest?
just after making a decision to see it
T/F: The results of Knox & Inkster's (1968) study on racetrack betting support the answer to the above question (#13).
making a decision and then feeling really good about it
Which of the following is the foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique?
gaining commitment and compliance to a small request, and following up later with a much larger request
True or False: Freedman & Fraser (1966) investigated the FITD technique by calling homeowners to request that they let a Hunger Relief Committee member come to their homes to sell cookies, and either initially started the conversation with the question "How are you doing?" or started with no question.
How is the low-ball technique similar to the foot-in-the-door technique?
both techniques increase an audience's commitment to some thing, both shift a person's self-image to include some new thing and also both ultimately are used to gain compliance
How is the low-ball technique different from the foot-in-the-door technique?
the low-ball offers something that they never intend to give to the audience whereas FITD ask for a small compliance
Which of the following is NOT one of the four conditions under which commitment will have most likely lead to consistency and compliance?
the commitment should be free from distraction
Which of the following events would be LEAST LIKELY increase a person's adherence to something?
making a promise to oneself that you should start working out after the semester ends
Which of the following events satisfies the maximum number of factors that will lead to the most long-term commitment & consistency?
an individual's wedding
When infomercials show a meter at the bottom of the screen demonstrating how many "items are left in stock" and the meter rapidly depletes as the infomercial goes on, they are trying to use what persuasive technique?
limited numbers technique
When infomercials show a timer at the bottom of the screen demonstrating how long a "special sale" is going to go on for, and the timer is winding down, they are trying to use what persuasive technique?
How does scarcity influence perceived value in terms of a specific heuristic?
what is rare is valuable
T/F: Psychological reactance is one of the factors that make scarcity appeals effective
T/F: Children experience reactance (Brehm, 1966; Brehm & Brehm, 1981) readily, but adults rarely experience reactance.
T/F: Psychological reactance by definition is simply being angered that an item of interest is scarce. (Note. You should go beyond your textbook for this definition)
What are the two optimal conditions for a scarcity appeal?
newly scarce & competition
In Worchel et al.'s (1975) "Cookie Study," when the experimenters reduced participants' cookie supply from 10 cookies down to 2 cookies, they reacted ___ to the cookies, compared to participants whose cookie supply was always 2 cookies.