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Fifteenth Amendment

(AJohn) , Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote

Black Codes

laws that restricted freedmen's rights


Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction


A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

Ku Klux Klan

a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep african americans from obtaining their civil rights

Poll tax

a tax put on African American voters

Literacy Tests

Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write - they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950's they still failed.

Grandfather Clause

This exempted those whose ancestors had voted in 1860 from taking literacy test to vote

Plessey vs. Ferguson

Supreme Court case in which "separate but equal" was upheld.


a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. they were also considered traitors to the Southern cause. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.

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