Terms in this set (85)
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Full name of DNA
DNA (and surrounding proteins)
Chromosomes are made up of...
A bacteriophage is a type of...
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein.
A "double helix" is like a ...
Enzyme that "unzips" DNA during replication and transcription...
Monomers that make up nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)...
Replication takes place in the...
Enzyme that rebuilds new DNA strands during replication.
Before a cell divides
Replication occurs when?
Disease, death, occasional beneficial traits
What are 3 possible results of a mutation in the DNA code?
At the beginning of a gene
Where would a frameshift mutation be the most harmful to a protein's structure and function?
deletion or insertion
2 types of frameshift mutation
mutation where a base is changed, but the amino acid coded for does not
complementary DNA sequence for GATTACA
The complete set of all the genetic information in an organism is called its...
Different genes are turned off or on
How can almost every cell in an organism's body have the exact same DNA and yet have such different structures and functions?
Took X-ray diffraction pictures of DNA used to discover helix shape
near end of gene
Least harmful frameshift mutation
organelle where proteins are synthesized
after a protein is made, it can be packaged at this organelle
protein coat and genetic material
composition of viruses
They cannot survive outside of a host cell for long, they are unable to reproduce outside of a host cell and they do not show all the characteristics of life that other organisms show.
Why aren't viruses considered by many scientists to be "living" things?
Viruses can be modified and used to insert healthy genes into cells with damaged DNA, restoring a cell's ability to make the healthy protein
How can viruses be utilized for gene therapy?
A DNA point mutation in a gene that changes the shape of hemoglobin, thereby changing the red blood cell to a sickle shape which can slow or stop blood and oxygen flow in capillaries, causing pain, lack of oxygen, exhaustion, etc.
Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by...
3 letter "code" for an amino acid on mRNA
3 letter code on tRNA which is complementary to the mRNA codon
anticodon for TAG
AUG; signals the beginning of a protein
3 letter code that signals the end of a protein
monomer of protein; coded for by mRNA codon
mutation where a base is replaced by a different base; type of mutation causing sickle cell anemia
A pairs with T; G pairs with C
base pairing rules
RNA contains ribose and uracil, is a single strand, and can leave the nucleus; DNA has deoxyribose sugar and thymine, is a double strand, and can't leave the nucleus
differences between DNA and RNA
outline the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular protein (name molecules in each stage)
outline the processes involved when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular protein
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
"globular" form of RNA of which ribosomes are made
transfer RNA (tRNA)
"clover leaf" shaped form of RNA which translates codons into amino acid sequence
messenger RNA (mRNA)
single strand form of RNA which carries DNA "code" to a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Watson and Crick
credited with discovering double helix shape of DNA
alternating deoxyribose sugars and phosphates
sides of the DNA ladder are made of...
an exact copy of DNA is made during what process?
monomers of nucleic acids (phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base)
change in DNA (often harmful)
Agent (chemical, radiation, etc.) which changes DNA
enzyme responsible for untwisting/unzipping DNA
molecule that "transfers" amino acids to the ribosomes for protein synthesis; translates codons int amino acid sequence
molecule that carries coded instructions for making proteins
enzyme which bonds mRNA nucleotides into a strand during transcription
enzyme which bonds DNA nucleotides into a strand during replication
Transcribe this DNA into mRNA: TACTATTCG
What are the anticodons which would match with this DNA: (careful--mRNA first) TACTATTCG
Translate this DNA into amino acid sequence using a codon wheel (careful--are they codons or anticodons on the wheel?): TACTATTCC
DNA nucleotide (monomer of DNA)
deoxyribose, phosphate, and nitrogenous base (G,C,A or T)
RNA nucleotide (monomer of RNA)
ribose, phosphate, and nitrogenous base (G,C,A or U)
sequence of stages in turning DNA code into physical characteristics
DNA to mRNA to tRNA to amino acid sequence to protein to trait
sequence of stages in protein synthesis
transcription to translation to protein synthesis (by dehydration synthesis)
locations of steps in protein synthesis
DNA to mRNA in nucleus; mRNA read by tRNA and translated into amino acid sequence at the ribosome in the cytoplasm
genetic material (DNA or RNA)
part of a virus that enters a host cell
part of a virus that does not enter a host cell
one ringed nitrogenous bases (thymine, cytosine, uracil)
two ringed nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine)
nitrogenous bases (DNA nucleotides)
The genetic code of DNA is based on the order of...
guanine, cytosine, adenine, phosphate
found both in DNA and RNA
deoxyribose and thymine
found in DNA but not RNA
ribose and uracil
found in RNA but not DNA
G always matches up with C and A with T, so the complementary bases are in equal amounts in DNA
Chargaff's rule was based on his observation that % of Guanine=% Cytosine and % Adenine=%Thymine in DNA. What is the reason for this equality?
nitrogenous bases (complementary purines and pyrimidines bonded by 2 or 3 hydrogen bonds)
The "rungs" of the DNA "ladder" are made of...
enzyme which untwists and unzips DNA double helix
half of the original strand is still present in each new strand (semi=half)
Why is replication considered to be "semiconservative"?
carries information on the genetic code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm/ribosome
guanine and cytosine are connected by 3 of these; adenine and thymine by 2...
tRNA with the anticodon UAC carries which amino acid (hint: use codon wheel; knowledge of codon/anticodon complementarity)
5' (Five prime)
the carbon in DNA which is outside the ring of the sugar, and is connected to the exposed phoshphate, is labeled as which numbered carbon?
3' (Three prime)
the third carbon from the oxygen in deoxyribose is called what?
process which proceeds in a straightforward manner in 5' to 3' direction, but must be done backward in loops and DNA connected by ligase if done in the 3' to 5' direction
one strand of DNA, mRNA, and RNA polymerase are involved in this process
mRNA, tRNA, codons, anticodons, a ribosome, and amino acids are involved in this process
both strands of DNA, DNA nucleotides, helicase, and DNA polymerase are involved in this process
signals the end of protein synthesis on mRNA
AUG, code for methionine, codon which signals the beginning of protein synthesis
substitution of a nitrogenous base which does not change the amino acid coded for because of redundant codes for each amino acid
y shaped location where DNA strands are separated by helicase
Hershey and Chase
scientists who used bacteriophages (viruses) with radioactive protein coats in one group of bacteria, and radioactive DNA in another group, to demonstrate that DNA was the hereditary material rather than protein
insertion or deletion of a multiple other than 3, which shifts the coding of the entire protein from that point onward; very severe if early in the sequence of amino acids