AP human Urban Vocab
Terms in this set (60)
the basic structure or features of a system or organization.
real property, the expansion, redevelopment or reuse of which may be complicated by the persistence of a hazardous substance.
a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central Place Theory
theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
Clustered rural settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
a community's collection of basic industries.
the process of consolidating small landholdings into smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
a model that holds that the potential use of a services at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses.
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n of the population of the largest settlement.
any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it.
a permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
the minimum number of people needed to support the service.
the movement of people to, and the clustering of people in, towns and cities- a major force in every geographic realm today. Also when expanding cities absorb the rural countryside and transforms it into suburbs.
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation.
an area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urban areas, census tracks correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
the downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
concentric zone model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner to abandonment.
an area where there is low access to fresh foods and vegetables, yet an abundance of fast-food and convenience stores nearby.
a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
an extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
metro statistical area
in the United States, a central city of at least 50000 population, the country within which the city is located, and adjacent countries meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
multiple nuclei model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
says that with a central business district (downtown) at the center, cities expand in rings that use the land in specific ways (industry, residence, commuting).
believe that in layers around a central business district (downtown), land use expands outwards in sectors based on the most convenient location for the set type of land-use.
Harris & Ullman
say that cities develop as areas with common requirements (land-use, financial) establish themselves near each other.
says that stages of Evolution of American Metropolis based on Transportation. 1. Sail/Wagon, 2. Iron Horse, 3. Steel Rail, 4. Auto-Air, 5. High Tech.
says that settlements exist as "central places" to provide services to the hinterlands.
A counter to urban sprawl. Development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walk-able neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
a rapidly growing city that remains suburban.
a "high class" area of a city.
zone of abandonment
areas that have been deserted in a city for economic or environmental reasons.
zone of disamenity
the very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from predominantly low-income, renter occupied area to a predominantly middle-class, owner-occupied area.
american south and west area that is dangerous to live in (hazardous).
Buildings use space for multiple sectors.
the outermost zone of the concentric zone model that represents people who choose to live in residential surburbia and take a daily commute into the CBD to work.
A city with a population of greater than 10 million.
cities in which a disproportionate part of the world's most important business is conducted.
galactic city model
model that represents distinct decentralization of the commercial urban landscape as the economy has to be transitioned to services as the leading form of production.
the separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences.
shanty towns generally found on the periphery of major cities and along the coast.
of, relating to, or designating a city or town.
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
zone in transition
an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD.
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic function.
the most populated part of a city or town usually with around 50,000 people located within it.
buildings use space for multiple sectors.