environmental Science test 1
Terms in this set (72)
what do renewable resources and nonrenewable resources have in common? two examples
They both are resources and they both have to do with the environment. Also, we must use them wisely because if not they will disipear.They both grow on Earth, as well. They are both from nature and people depend on them. Lastly, they both produce energy.
what do renewable resources and nonrenewable resources differ? two examples
Renewable resources are things that the environment can replace after they are used, but non-renewable resources we cannot replace after they are used. N on-renewable resources are minerals, fossil fuels, stone, ,silver ,copper and coal. A renewable resource is the water cycle, or recycling. These are some ways renewable and non-renewable resources are different.
how and why did the agricultural revolution affect human population size? and what environmental impacts have resulted from this revolution
The agriculture revolution affected human population size by the abundance of food that led to a more consistence food supply (decreases death rate)
how and why did the industrial revolution affect human population size? and what environmental impacts have resulted from this revolution
(Medicine got better, people were living longer) (Decreases death rate) (Increase in population growth)
what is an ecological footprint? describe how natural capital is similar to a bank account
An ecological footprint is the environmental impact of a person of population.
What is environmental science name several disciplines that environmental science draws upon
Environmental science peruses knowledge about the environment and our interactions with the environment. (biology, psychology, zoology)
Compare and contrast the two meanings of science. name three applications of science.
Two meanings are observational and descriptive science
Describe the scientific method what is its typical sequence of steps?
Explain the difference between correlation of causation and state how these concepts relate to manipulative and natural experiments.
Correlation= statistical association among variables (ex) one tends to increase along with the other- more runoff in pond water, more algae growth
Causation= one thing causing another event to happen
These relate to manipulative experiments because this would show the affects of causation through manipulating the independent variable can cause changes in a dependent variable. In contrast, natural experiments compare how independent variables vary naturally and researchers test their hypothesis for correlation
Give examples of three major environmental problems along with their causes how are these problems inter-related now name one potential solution for each
Air and water pollution (make policy's limiting release of pollutants), global climate change (reduce green house gas emissions), and deforestation (design a policy limiting the deforestation) - These problems are all related because they are a result of over use of our natural goods and services on Earth.
What occurs before A researchers results are published in a scientific journal why is this process important?
did research, write a paper, send to be proofread, sent to a journal company, revise
Describe In your own words what you think is meant by the term sustainability. List three ways that students faculty and administrators are seeking to make their campuses more sustainable
I think sustainability means trying as best as we can to still live the lifestyle we currently are, just in a more efficient and conservative way to ensure future generations can live as comfortably as we do now. Students are running recycling drives, faculty (like professors) are assigning sustainability projects, and administrators have put up new recycling and trashcans up all over campus.
1: what are the basic building blocks of matter provide several examples using chemicals common in earths physical or biological systems
Matter= anything that has mass and occupies space- solid, liquid, and gas
Examples of matter- all elements are fundamental types of matter (chemical substance with a given set of properties that cannot be broken down into substances with other properties) like hydrogen, oxygen, silicon, nitrogen, carbon.
How does an ion differ from an isotope how do atoms, molecules and compounds differ
Ion= like an atom, made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons but electrons are either going to be gained or lost giving the element a positive or negative charge.
Isotope= are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
Atom= smallest units that maintain chemical properties. They are made up of proton, neutrons, and electrons
Molecule= combination of two or more atoms
Compound= a molecule composed of two or more different elements (ex) Water H2O
Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics
The first law, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases.
Describe Two major forms of energy and give examples of each
Energy= the capacity to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter- a force that can accomplish work.
Potential Energy= energy of position
Kinetic Energy= energy of motion
Example water being held up behind a dam would be potential energy if the dam were to release it would be kinetic energy
Describe the three major sources of energy that power earths environmental systems
*Describe the three major sources of energy that power Earth's environmental systems.
-Radiation from sunlight
-Geothermal heating from the planets core
-Gravitational interactions among Earth the sun, and the moon.
What substances are produce by photosynthesis, by cellular respiration, by chemosynthesis
Photosynthesis produces glucose, oxygen, and potential energy.
Cellular respiration produces chemical energy.
Chemosynthesis produces glucose and potential energy.
Name the primary layers that make up our planet which portions does the Lithosphere include
The primary layers include the core, mantle, and crust. The asthenosphere consists of the upper mantle, and the lithosphere includes the uppermost mantle and the crust.
Describe what occurs at a divergent plate boundary. What happens at a transform plate boundary? Compare and contrast the types of processes that can occur at a convergent plate boundary
At divergent plate boundaries, the plates push away from each other, releasing magma from the mantle. As this cools, it forms new lithosphere. At transform plate boundaries, the plates rub against each other horizontally, creating friction, strike-slip faults, often causing earthquakes. At convergent boundaries, subduction can occur, causing deep trenches, or continental collision can occur, causing volcanoes and mountains to form.
Name the three main types of rocks and describe how each tyow may be converted to the others via the rock cycle
The three main types of rock are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Igneous and metamorphic rock can convert to sedimentary rock through weathering and erosion and lithification. Metamorphic rock can turn into igneous by melting and being released through volcanoes and cooling. Sedimentary and igneous rock become metamorphic rock by being subject to heating and pressure. Sedimentary rock can become igneous by first becoming metamorphic then melting and becoming igneous.
What causes earthquakes? What are tsunamis and what causes them? How does a Hawaiian volcano such as Kilauea differ from a volcano in the Andes mountains?
Earthquakes result from energy due to movement in faults through friction being released. Tsunamis are a large wave that goes onshore that are triggered by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides that displace large amounts of water at once. The two volcanoes differ because Mount Kilauea lava flows endlessly and is located on a hotspot, while Mount St. Helens released a large volume of cinder and ash at once.
1: Define the concept of natural selection in your own words and explain how it follows logically from a few common observations of nature
natural selection definition. A process fundamental to evolution as described by Charles Darwin. By natural selection, any characteristic of an individual that allows it to survive to produce more offspring will eventually appear in every individual of the species, simply because those members will have more offspring.
Describe an example of evidence for natural selection and an example of evidence for artificial selection
Some consider domesticated animals to be the ultimate products of artificial selection.In a habitat there are red bugs and green bugs. The birds prefer the taste of the red bugs, so soon there are many green bugs and few red bugs. The green bugs reproduce and make more green bugs and eventually there are no more red bugs
Describe the steps involved in allopatric speciation?
1) geographic isolation occurs
2) two populations must become isolated geographically from one another
3) the become separate species or interbreed
Name three organisms that have become extinct or or threatened with extension for each, give a probable reason for its decline
a. The golden toad has gone extinct due to habitat loss
b. The dodo bird was hunted to extinction
c. Dinosaurs went extinct, probably due to severe global impacts of a giant asteroid collision.
Define the terms species, population and community how does a species differ from a population ? how does a population differ from a community
species: a group of organisms that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring.population: a group of organisms of the same species living in an area at the same time .community: a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
Define and contrast the concept of habitat and niche
The specific environment in which an organism lives is its (habitat) whereas its (niche) is its functional role in a community.
List and describe each of the five major attributes of populations that help ecologist predict population growth or decline ? briefly explain how each attribute shapes population dynamics
a. Population size
b. Population density
c. Spatial distribution
d. Sex ratio
e. Age structure
Can a species undergo exponential growth indefinitely explain your answer?
It is not possible for any species to undergo exponential growth forever. There is only a finite amount of resources in terms of living space, food, air to breathe, water to drink, and so forth, and therefore a constantly growing species will eventually get to the point at which it runs out of resources
Describe how limiting factors relate to carrying capacity?
Carrying Capacity is the total frequency of individuals within a community a habitat can sustain. Limiting Factors are biotic or abiotic factors which limit the carrying capacity. For example, within a population of foxes, there is enough space and water for 20 individuals.
Explain the difference between K selected species and r selected species ? for each provide an example that was not mentioned in the chapter
K-strategists invest heavily in a few offspring with high survival rates, and move towards a stable population near the environment's carrying capacity, whereas r-strategists invest in producing large numbers of offspring with low survival rates.
Explain how competition, leads to a realized niche. How does competition promote resource partitioning?
An individual that plays only part of its role or uses part of its resources because of competition or other types of species interactions is said to display a realized niche.
Resource partitioning: The process by which species adapt to comptetion by evolving to use slightly different resources, or to use their shared resources in different ways thus minimizing interference with one anothe
Compare and contrast the three main types of exploitative species interactions (predation, parasitism, and herbivory) explain how they differ?
Predation: proces by which individuals capture, kill, and consume, inividuals of another species known as the prey.
Parasitism: a relationship in which one organism, the parasite, dpeneds on another, the host, for nourishment or some other benefit while doing the host harm.
Herbivory: animal feed on the tissue of plants, generally does not kill the plant outright but may affect its growth and reproduction.
Give examples of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic mutualisms. Describe at least one way in which a mutualism affects your daily life.
Symbiotic: flowering plants and bees, humans and domesticated animals, anemones and clownfish.
Non-symbiotic mutualism: the species do not live together, nor are dependent on each other; the relationship is facilitative or opportunistic but does profit the organisms when together. Many mutualistic relationships have been documented.The wood termite-protozoa relationship, the yucca-moth relationship
Humans' digestive tracts are filled with bacteria and microbes that help digestion.
Compare and contrast trophic levels, food chains, and food webs. How are these concepts related, and how do they differ?
Compare and contrast trophic levels, food chains, and food webs. How are these concepts related and how do they differ? A food chain shows a linear relationship between organisms in different trophic levels, and a food web connects multiple food chains to give a much broader image of species' interactions. Both use trophic levels as a way of showing the progression of nutrients through a system
What is meant by the term keystone species, and what types of organisms are most often considered keystone species?
A keystone species is an organism that helps define an entire ecosystem. Without its keystone species, the ecosystem would be dramatically different or cease to exist altogether. ... The ecosystem would be forced to radically change, allowing new and possibly invasive species to populate the habitat
Describe the process of primary succession. How does it differ from secondary succession? Give an example of each
Primary succession occurs following an opening of a pristine habitat, for example, a lava flow, an area left from retreated glacier, or abandoned strip mine. In contrast, secondary succession is a response to a disturbance, for example, forest fire, tsunami, flood, or an abandoned field.
Why do scientists consider invasive species to be a problem? What makes a species "invasive" and what ecological effects can invasive species have? Give examples?
Invasive species are harmful to our natural resources (fish, wildlife, plants and overall ecosystem health) because they disrupt natural communities and ecological processes. ... The invasive species can outcompete the native species for food and habitats and sometimes even cause their extinction.
What is restoration ecology? Why is it an important scientific pursuit in today's world?
Restoration ecologists research the historical conditions of ecological communities as they existed before human alterations and then they devise ways to restore these altered areas to their earlier condition.
This is an important scientific pursuit since support civilization and all of life, so when system are degraded and can't function, our health and well-being are threatened.
What factors most strongly influence the type of biome that forms in a particular place on land? What factors determine the type of aquatic system that may form in a given location?
Biome: A major regional complex of similar communities- a large scale ecological unit recognized primarily by its dominant plant type and vegetation structure. Temperature and precipitation con predict the type of biome that forms on a land.
Aquatic systems are the biomes existing in the oceans, along the coast, and in freshwater systems. These systems are shaped by water temperature, salinity, dissolved nutrients, wave action, currrents, depths, light levels, and type of substrate (sandy, muddy, or rocky bottom)
Draw a typical climate diagram for a tropical rainforest. Label all parts of the diagram and describe all of the type of information an ecologist could glean from such a diagram. Now draw a climate diagram for a desert. How does it differ from your rainforest climatograph and what does this tell you about how the two biomes differ.
Which type of feedback loop is more common in nature, and which more commonly results from human action? How might the emergence of a positive feedback loop affect the system in Homeostasis
most systems in nature involve the negative feedback loop
negative feedback loop ex-thermostat
positive feedback loop-ex melting ice
Describe how hypoxic conditions can develop in ecosystems such as the Chesapeake bay.
people started catching more and more oysters not knowing that oysters were ecologically important to the chesapeake bay region, because they filter the waters
When phytoplankton die, settle to the bay bottom , and are decomposed by the bacteria, this depletes oxygen in the water (a condition called hypoxia) and creates "dead zones" in the bay. Grasses, oysters and other organisms die in those dead zones.
What is the difference between an ecosystem and a community?
community a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
the community and their abiotic environment.
Describe the typical movement of energy through an ecosystem. now describe the typical movement of matter through an ecosystem
Energy flowing through an ecosystem:
light energy drives photosynthesis in producers, which begins the transfer of chem energy among trophic levels and detritus. Energy exits the system through respiration in the form of heat.
Matter flowing through an ecosystem:
nutrients flow among the trophic levels and detritus. In both diagrams, box sizes represent relative magnitudes of energy or matter content , arrow widths represent relative magnitudes of energy or matter transfer. Such magnitudes may vary tremendeously from one ecosystem to another
Explain net primary productivity. Name one ecosystem with high net primary productivity and one with low net primary productivity?
Net primary productivity= ecosystems whose plants convert solar energy to biomass rapidly are said to have high net primary productivity. High net primary productivity= wetlands and tropical forests Low net primary productivity= deserts, tundra, open ocean
Why are patches in a landscape mode psych often important to people who are interested in conserving populations of rare animals?
Because these patches, of organisms sometimes mate with members of another patch, and as a result metapopulation occurs. That means these are usually rare animals. Conservationists are concerned with preserving these species by establishing corridors of habitat to link patches together
What is the difference between evaporation and transpiration? Give examples of how the water cycle interacts with the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles .
Evaporation= going from a liquid state to a gaseous state
Transpiration= release of water vapor (in plants through their leaves, in humans, through sweat evaporating).
The water cycle interacts with the carbon cycle through the ocean water. Ocean water is one of the reservoirs in the carbon cycle. The water cycle interacts with the nitrogen cycle through denitrifying bacteria. In this process denitrifying bacteria converts nitrates into soil or water to gaseous nitrogen.
What role does each of the following play in the carbon cycle? cars, photosynthesis, the oceans, earths crust.
Cars- By combusting fossil fuels in our automobiles, homes, and industries, we release carbon dioxide and greatly increase the flux of carbon from the ground to the air.
Photosynthesis- this process breaks the bonds in carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and carbohydrates to fuel cellular respiration, which releases carbon back into the atmosphere and the oceans.
Oceans- The oceans absorb carbon containing compounds from the atmosphere some of these carbon atoms absorbed combine with calcium ions to form calcium carbonate which is an essential ingredient in the skeletons and shells of microscopic marine organisms.
Distinguish the function performed by nitrogen fixing bacteria from that performed by denitrifying bacteria?
Nitrogen fixing bacteria- provides nutrients to plants by converting nitrogen to usable form.
Denitrifying bacteria- convert nitrates in soil or water to gaseous nitrogen that releases nitrogen back into the air as a gas
How has human activity alter the carbon cycle? The phosphorus cycle? The nitrogen cycle? What environmental problems have arisen from these changes?
Carbon Cycle- Human impact from mining for fossil fuels and from deforestation. These two things are the driving force behind climate change.
Nitrogen Cycle- Haber-Bosch process made it possible to produce ammonia on an industrial scale which is a key ingredient in fertilizers which allowed for more crops to be produced and therefore population increased. The problem with this is that the fertilizers would get into the water ways an cause nutrient pollution which can lead to hypoxia and cause damage to aquatic ecosystems like the Chesapeake Bay.
1: what does the study of ethics encompass ? Describe and differentiate instrumental value and intrinsic value. what is environmental ethics?
Ethics is the branch of philosophy that studies ways to differentiate between right and wrong conduct or to define moral living.
Environmental ethics explores the moral relationship of humans to the environment and its not nonhuman elements.
A person, organism, or object valued as an end unto itself is said to have intrinsic value while a thing that is valued as a means to some other end has instrumental value. Something with intrinsic value is simply considered good in of itself while something with instrumental value depends on how much it generates intrinsic value
Compare and contrast anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. explain how individuals with each perspective might evaluate the development of a shopping mall atop a wetland in your town or city.
Anthropocentrism: the belief that human beings are the central or most significant species on the planet
Biocentrism: is an ethical point of view that extends inherent value to all living things
Ecocentrism: a point of view that recognizes the ecosphere, rather than the biosphere, as central in importance, and attempts to redress the imbalance created by anthropocentrism.
Differentiate the preservation ethic from the conservation ethic. Explain the contribution of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot in the history of environmental ethics.
Conservation ethics stipulates that public resources should be used and managed in a sustainable fashion to provide the greatest benefits to the greatest number of people while preservation ethics believes that public lands should preserve wild nature in its pristine state and should not be utilized for consumption usage. Gifford Pinchot was the leading spokesperson for conservation. He studied forestry in Europe and was an ardent critic of the destructive forestry practices widely used at that time. For the opposing viewpoint, preservation, John Muir, influenced by transcendentalist writings, founded one of the earliest nongovernmental environmental advocacy organizations.
Describe Aldo Leopold's land ethic. How did Leopold define the " community"to which ethical standards should be applied?
Aldo Leopold's land ethic was an essay in which Aldo Leopold's land ethic called on people to include the environment in their ethical framework. The land ethic basically enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land. Aldo Leopold's wanted to expand ethics to include the land and every organism in it.
Explain the concept of environmental justice. give an example of an inequity relevant to environmental justice that you believe exists in your city, state, or country.
is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies
Name and describe two key contributions that the environment makes to the economy
Although ignored by traditional economic schools of thought, the natural environment provides the economy with natural resources: goods such as lumber, metals, fuels as well as provides ecological systems to purify air and water, form soil, and cycle nutrients, all essential to economic activity.
Describe four ways in which critics hold that neoclassical economic approaches can worsen environmental problems?
1)Replacing resources: one assumption is that natural and human resources are substitutable and interchangeable so once a resource is depeleted, we will have some sort of replacement for it. False since some natural resources are non-renewable.
2) External Costs: Assumes all costs and benefits are associated with an exchange of goods and services are incurred by the indvidual's direct engagement. False since there are are
-external costs: costs of a transaction that affect other members of society, ex: pollution.
3) Discounting: Assumes an event in the future has less value than one in the present. Most environmental problems are gradual and easily downplayed by this assumption
4) Growth: Assumes economic growth is essential to social well being, more growth means more wealth for all. Problem since endless growth cannot be sustained due resources actually being limited.
Compare and contrast the views of neoclassical economists, environmental economist, and ecological economist, particularly regarding the issue of economic growth .
Neoclassical explains the market in terms of of our preference for units of particular commodities. Supply and demand. Uses cost-benefit analyis; pursue the action when benefits outweigh the costs. Monetary benefits are more easily quantified than costs in terms of pollution over an extended period of time.
Environmental economists, feel humans can modify neoclassical principals to make resource use more efficient and thereby attain sustainability within current economic system. Stresses carrying capacity and system cycles
Ecological economics feel that in nature, every population has its carrying capacity and society cannot exceed these limitations. Advocate steady-state economies which will neither shrink nor grow, mirroring the natural systems' rates.
What are ecosystem services? Give several examples. describe ways in which some economists have a signed monetary Values to ecosystem services
Ecosystem services are direct and indirect contributions by the ecosystem that improve human quality of life. Economists have tried to assign monetary nonmarket values to ecosystem services. For example, bees provide pollination whose service has a market value of .2 trillion, or birds controlling pests provides a service worth 1.3 trillion to farmers.
By assigning monetary value to these services, the cost-benefits analysis may be able to make decisions that are more sustainable.
Define sustainable development .what is meant by the triple bottom line? Why is it important to pursue sustainable development?
Sustainable development: development that "meets the needs of the present without sacraficing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".
The triple bottom line is a trio of goals comprising complete, well rounded sustainable development.
It is important since it is the only way to ensure the same quality of life for future generations
1:Describe two major justifications for environmental policy. now discuss three problems that environmental policy commonly seeks to address.
Two common justifications are to regulate resource use and to reduce pollution, three problems that environmental policy commonly seeks to address are the tragedy of the commons, free riders, and external costs xxx
What is the tragedy of commons? Explain how this concept might apply to an u unregulated industry that is a source of water pollution.
The tragedy of the commons is the idea that if humans have an unregulated use of natural resources, they will eventually be depleted. This concept might apply to this kind of industry because if the industry kept polluting the water, eventually there would be no clean water left, only polluted water.
Outline the primary responsibilities of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the US government.what is the fourth branch of the US government?
The legislative branch is made up of the Congress which is the House of Representatives and the Senate. Its job is to make the laws. ... The job of the executive branch is to enforce the laws. The judicial branch branch is made up of the Supreme Court and other courts, and its job is to interpret the laws. fourth is the ppl
What is meant by regulatory talking?
occurs when the government deprives a property owner of some or all of the economic use of their property
Summarize how the first, second, and third waves of environmental policy in the US.history differed from one another. describe two current priorities in international environmental policy.
first wave: policy of this era reflected a perception that the vast western lands were inexhaustible in natural resources.
Second wave: Laws of this period aimed to alleviate some of the environmental impacts of westward expansion. There was a new understanding that the resources were exhaustible and required protectiong.
Third wave: There was a public demand for a cleaner environment. Clean air act, Endangered Species act, Safe water drinking act, toxic substances control act, resource conservation and recovery act, clean water act, soil and water conservation act.
What did the national environmental policy act accomplish? Briefly describe the origin and mission of the US Environmental Protection Agency
The NEPA created an agency called the council on environmental quality and required that an environmental impact statement be prepared for any major federal action that might significantly affect the environmental quality.
The EPA was charged with conducting and evaluating research, monitoring environmental quality, setting and enforcing standards for pollution levels, assitsting the states in meeting the standards, and educating the public.
What is the difference between customary law and conventional loan? What challenges to transboundary environmental problems present?
Customary law deals more with the traditional practices and conventional deals more with nations coming together with treaties about the environment. Transboundary environmental problems happen when two countries are next to each other and have to find a balance between their pollution and whatnot.
Why are environmental regulations sometimes considered to be unfair barriers to trade?
Environmental regulations certainly create barriers to trade; whether those barriers are "unfair" depends on your point of view. The sorts of environmental regulations that create trade barriers are (a) strict limits on the amount of toxic material that may occur in a product, (b) standards mandating a given level of energy efficiency, (c) requirements that packaging be recyclable, etc. Complaints about excessive environmental regulation interfering with trade are most often directed at the European Union. Well, guess what. The EU is broke, and its devotion to environmental regulation is likely to reverse in the near future.
Compare and contrast the three major approaches to environmental policy: lawsuits, command and control, and economic policy tools.
Lawsuits; individuals suffering external costs from pollution would sue polluters, one case at time. Polluters if guilty would pay the sufferer. Proved inefficient as population grew and judges did not like to hinder industry.
Command and control: a regulating agency prohibits certain actions, or sets rules, standards or limits, and threatens punishment for violation. Effective but citizens are not very of top-down orders.
Economic Policy tools: use financial incentives to promote desired outcomes by encouraging private entities competing in a market place to innovate and generate new or better solutions at a lower cost. Sometimes the incentive is not strong enough.
Explain how each of the following work;a green tax, a subsidy, and an emissions trading system.
Green tax: a tax on environmentally harmful activities and products. The tax paid is essentially reimbursing public for environmental damage caused.
Subsidy: a government giveaway of money or resources that is intended to support or promote an industry or activity.
Emission permits: a government creates a market in permits for the emission of pollutants, and companies, utiliities, or industries then buy and sell the permits among themselves.
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