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Anatomy Chapter 3 Terms

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Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells
chromosome
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleic acid found in all living cells: carries the organism's hereditary information.
desmosome
Anchoring junctions that prevents cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart; two adjacent cells are attached. formed from protein plaques in the the cell membranes linked by protein filaments
gap junction
Communicating Junctions; channels that allow small molecules to flow through protein-lined pores between cells. common in the heart and embryonic cells.
membrane junction
Cells are tightly bound, prevent fluids and most molecules from moving between cells. Useful in places such as the stomach and kidneys. types are desmosomes, tight junctions, and gap junctions
Organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
tight junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells, Impermeable, bind cells together into leak-proof sheets
active transport
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference or gradient
anaphase
3rd phase; the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and move in opposite poles of the spindle.
cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
concentration gradient
a gradient in concentration of a solute that molecules move down and the greater the difference in concentration between the two areas, the faster diffusion occurs. It is An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area., A difference in concentration between two areas.
cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division after the cell nucleus has divided.
diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
endocytosis
Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell to form a vacuole.
filtration
A process that separates materials through a membrane based on the size of their particles.
hypertonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.,causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis
hypotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution, causes a cell to swell because of osmosis.
interphase
A the resting phase between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution. examples interstitial fluid and intravenous solutions
metaphase
Second Stage of Cell division: Centromeres of duplicated chromosomes are aligned at plate. chromosomes become attached to spindle fibers
mitosis
Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 daughter cells that are exactly like the parent cell., asexual reproduction and contains same number of chromosomes.
osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient.example is ATP. and diffusion is driven by kinetic energy
protein synthesis
Forming proteins based on information in DNA and carried out by RNA
telophase
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis., A cleavage furrow forms during this phase, two nuclei are formed
anticodon
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
codon
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid. (if DNA triplets are AAT-CGT-TCG then related _____ on mRNA would be UUA-GCA-AGC
enzyme
A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific chemical reaction
gene
biological unit of hereditary information located in chromatin consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). that transmits hereditary information.
ribonucleic acid(RNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose; acts in protein synthesis
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA, DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA
translation
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA and used to assemble proteins.
triplet
a group of three bases on DNA that codes for one amino acid.