Digestive system 01

anatomy, physiology, digestion, digestive system
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Terms in this set (...)

Large Intestine
Any food left over after the trip through the small intestine enters here.
Large Intestine
two of its functions are to reabsorb water and produce vitamin K.
Lips, Cheeks and Tongue
form a bolus or ball of food.
Liver
makes bile, which breaks down and emulsifies fatty acids.
Pancreas
makes many enzymes to break down food in the small intestine.
Peristalsis
wave-like contractions that carry the food down the alimentary canal
Small Intestine
Most nutrient absorption occurs here.
Small Intestine
Its large surface area, resulting from its length and protrusions called villi and microvilli, allow for a great absorptive surface into the bloodstream.
Duodenum
Neutralization of the chyme after arrival from the acidic stomach allows the local enzymes to function.
Stomach
pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid form pepsin, the enzyme that hydrolyzes proteins.
Stomach
The chemical action there breaks the food down further and churns into a semifluid mass called acid chyme.
Pyloric sphincter
Opens to allow the food to enter the small intestine.
Teeth and Saliva
They begin digestion by breaking food down into smaller pieces and lubricating it to allow swallowing.
Absorption
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
Amino acids
Small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules.
Anus
The opening at the end of the digestive system through which wastes are eliminated.
Bile
A substance produced by the liver that helps in the breaking up of fat particles.
Calorie
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
Carbohydrate
An energy-rich organic compound, such as a sugar or starch, that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Cholesterol
A waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products that is an important part of the body's cells; can build up on artery walls.
Digestion
The process by which the body breaks down complex molecules of food into small nutrient molecules.
Enzyme
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in living things.
Epiglottis
The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
Esophagus
The muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Fat
A high-energy nutrient that is composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and contains more than twice as much energy as an equal amount of carbohydrate.
Fiber
A complex carbohydrate found in plant foods that cannot be broken down into sugar molecules by the body. It cannot be digested.
Gallbladder
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver.
Glucose
A sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells. It is a monosaccharide (C6H12O6).
Large intestine
The last section of the digestive system where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body.
Liver
The largest and heaviest organ inside the body; it breaks down substances and eliminates nitrogen from the body.
Mineral
a simple element that is not organic and that is needed by the body.
Mucus
A thick, slippery substance produced by the body, usually to protect surfaces.
Nutrient
A substance in food that provides energy, or a raw material that the body needs in order to carry out its life processes.
Pancreas
A triangular organ that produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine
Peristalsis
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
Protein
A large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur that is used for tissue growth and repair; plays an important role in the chemical reactions of cells
Rectum
A short section at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
Saliva
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion.
Saturated fat
A fat, such as butter, that is usually solid at room temperature
Small intestine
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place
Stomach
A J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen that expands to hold all of the food that is swallowed.
Unsaturated fat
A fat, such as olive oil, that is usually liquid at room temperature
Villi
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and that provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed.
Vitamin
A molecule that acts as a helper in a variety of chemical reactions within the body.
amylase
an enzyme found in saliva starts to breaks down some of the carbohydrates before leaving the mouth
appendix
a small, hollow, finger-like pouch, hangs at the end of the cecum. It no longer appears to be useful to the digestive process.
cecum
a pouch at the beginning of the large intestine that joins the small intestine to the large intestine
colon
extends from the cecum up the right side of the abdomen, across the upper abdomen, and then down the left side of the abdomen, finally connecting to the rectum. Bacteria here helps digest the remaining food products.
duodenum
first part of small intestine, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
esophagus
a muscular tube in chest that food flows down
ileum
last part of small intestine, absorbs enzymes and anything left over by jejunum
jejunum
middle portion of small intestine where chemical digestion ends and absorption begins
large intestine
removes water from the undigested matter and form solid waste that can be excreted.
rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
sphincter
a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening
colon
absorbs fluids (water) and salts
absorption
process by which nutrients pass through the lining of the digestive system
amino acid
small unit that are bound together to form proteins
chyme
thick mixture of food and gastric juices formed in the stomach
digestion
process by which food is broken down food into molecules
fat
a nutrient that supplies energy, forms cells, maintains body temperature, and protects nerves
fiber
complex carbohydrate that is found in plants and is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system. Helps to form faeces.
kidney
an organ that filters waste from the blood and produces urine
vitamin
nutrient made by living things, required in small amounts, assists in chemical reactions in the body
lipase
enzyme that breaks down lipids
pancreatic amylase
enzyme from pancreas that breaks down starch
trypsin, pepsin, peptidase
enzymes that break down proteins
sucrase, amylase, maltase, lactase
enzymes that break down sugars (carbohydrates)
feces
waste product, mostly cellulose, E. coli, water, and bilirubin
villi
folds in small intestine that make larger area for food absorption into the blood
egestion
the removal of waste food materials from the body
ingestion
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
the anus
The feces, or remaining waste, pass out through it.