HTH Day 2 (Period 3) 2019
Terms in this set (96)
2nd Continental Congress
Created a continental army with George Washington as the leader, agreed to write a formal letter declaring their independence from England.
compromise in which one slave was determined to equal 3/5 of a person when considering the population of a state
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
The movement to make slavery and the slave trade illegal. Started by Quakers in England in the 1780s.
A plan by Ben Franklin to unite the British colonies under the control of an overall government that would solve common problems such as wars.
First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Four laws passed by ferderalist congress in 1798 that extended waiting period for immigrants to become a citizen, gave the president power to arrest and deport citizens of countries that were at war with the US, and made it illegal to publish slander about the federal gov or officials. Passed in response to the XYZ affair
A national political convention held in 1786 in Maryland. 12 delegates from 5 states to disscuss the problems with the Articles of Confederation
Opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification, didnts like powerful centralized government. They instead wanted decentralized gov that gave more power to states
Articles of Confederation
First governing document of US, it created a WEAK central government; issues with trade, different currencies in each state, tariffs on goods traded between states, provided a loose unity, and passed the successful NW Ordinances.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
last conflict in the Northwest Indian War, The Western Confederacy fought the United States over control of the Northwest Territory. Western Confederacy was defeated by the US and had to sign the Treaty of Greenville.
battle of saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support, lifted American spirits, and ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River
battle of yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Bill of Rights
drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Boston Tea Party
A protest againts the Tea Act in December, 1773 where ships were not allowed to bring tea to shore and colonists disguised themselves as natives and boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard
Central bank of the US, designed to coordinate the issuing of a stable national currency and provide easy nationwide exchange, loved by the Federalists, and tolerated by the Anti Federalists
Checks and Balances
Major principle of the American gov. that helps maintain a seperation of powers and prevents one branch of the gov from being too powerful
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed it was obvious that the colonies should become independent, it appealed to the less educated compared to TJ's Declaration of Indy
A meeting in 1787 of elected representitives to write the Constitutuion of the United States
Delegates from every colony except Georgia met in Philadelphia and asserted their rights as Englishmen.
A woman that disguised herself as a man to serve in the revolutionary war
Declaration of Independence
Drafted in 1776 by T.Jefferson, declared America's seperation from Great Britain
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the stamp act, it stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Britain "The sole and exclusive right" to tax the colonists.
Belief in the existance of a supreme being, especially a creator who does not intervene with the universe
Led by Thomas Jefferson, beleived that people should have political power and favored strong state gov.
A collection of articles written to defend the constitution, written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton
Supporters of a stong central government led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.
French and Indian War
Fought between English and French on American soil over control over the Ohio River Valley, England won.
A literate slave who planned to lead a large slave rebellion in Richmond in 1800. Rebellion info was leaked and Gabriel (and 25 other slaves) were hanged
Not affiliated with a political party, first president, set political precedents for term limits and isolationism, Revolutionary War hero.
Compromise between large and small states to solve representation debates over population. Created 2 houses of congress (house of reps and senate)
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Wanted to pay off Federal and State debt with war bonds and creat a national bank and taxes.
Member of the Continental Army and served under George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. Secretary of War under Washington
Passed by Parliment in reaction to the Boston Tea Party, a series of acts incuding shutting down the boston harbor and the Quartering Act. Resulted in the colonists forming the first continental congress
The fourth POTUS, a member of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, Federalist who turns Anti Federalist, "Father of the Constitution".
Lawyer in colonial Massachussets and early advocate of Patriot views against Britian
Treaty signed in 1794 between the US and Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to remove their presence from northwest territory
Second POTUS and a Federalist, responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts, prevented all out war with France after the XYZ affair
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances and wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" to protest the Townshend Acts. Critic of British policies BUT was against the revolution.
Statesman, patriot, diplomat and founding father, helped write the federalist papers
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government.
Supreme Court power to say whether or not something is constitutional or unconstitutional.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress Passed this Act which created the federal court system and established a federal district court in each state.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Passed by the legislatures in the two states, these restrictions maintained that the Alien and Sedition acts went beyond the powers of the Federal Gov. The resolbes said that individual states could nullify federal laws that were deemed unconstitutional by states
King of England during the time of the revolution
Land Ordinance of 1785
Calls for selling and occupying of land west of the original colonies that was gained after the Revolution under the Articles of confederation because congress could not directly tax citizens and needed revenue
Lexington and Concord
the 'Shot heard round the world' and the british retreated from boston
American colonists who remained loyal to Britian
Marbury v Madison
Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commision. This established judicial review
An alliance of North American Indians in the Great Lakes region following the American Revolutionary War. This confederacy came together to resist the expansion of the US into Northwest Territory after Great Britain ceded the region
New Jersey Plan
A proposal for the structure of the United States government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention, it called for equal representation for each state.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Considered one of the most significatn acheivements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so that they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Olive Branch Petition
A final offer of peace to the British government if they addressed their greivances that was rejected by parliment
Britains highest legislator composted of two houses, the House of Lords and the House of Commons
A leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American Colonies. His dramatic speech, "Virginia Resolves" addressed the fact that only taxes approved by the Virginia House should matter.
A treaty negotiated with Spain that recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi river and use the New Orleans port (Right of Deposit)
An Indian uprising after the Frech and Indian War, led by Ottowa cheif named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio alley and began destroying british forts. Their efforts failed.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British gov. that forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains
Extended boundaries of quebec and granted equal rights to catholics while reconizing legality of the catholic church in the territory. Colonists feared that the pope would soon oversee the colonists
a movement during the 1760s by western North Carolinians, mainly scots-irish that resented the eastern part of the state and political affairs. They beleived that tax money was being spent unevenly
The idea that American women had a special resposibility to cultivate 'civic virtue' in their children
"penman of the Revolution" a strong political leader that was aware and sensitive to colonists rights, he organized local committees or correspondence.
Separartion of powers
Constitutuional division of powers amoung the legislative, executive, and judical branches. Checks and balances
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers protesting mortgage foreclosure. It highlighted the need for a strong national government.
Siege of Boston
American militia surrounded Boston to limit the British ability to resupply their troops, it lasted 11 months and Britian withdrew from the city.
Sons of liberty
Radical political organization for colonial independence that formed after the passage of the stamp act. They incited riots, burned houses full of stamped british paper, and dumped some tea.
Act passed by parliment that raised revenue from the colonies by requiring a stamp on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
The first congress of the American Colonies, held in New York City
Strict v Loose
Constitution means exactly what it says v the constitution lays a framework and the gov of the US holds all powers not mentioned in the constitution
Britian was in deep debt due to the French and Indian War and parliment placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and bribing tax collectors.
Law passed by parliment allowing British East Indian Company to sell low-cost tea directly to colonies therefore undermining colonial tea merchants
The American Crisis
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that helped boost Americans lagging spirits, George Washington read it to his troops
Called for a complete boycott of british goods
A prominet statesman, and George Washingtons first secretary of state. Anti-federalist and the third POTUS
Revolutionary leader who wrote Common Sense
tax passed by parliment on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Let to outrage and boycotting
Treaty of Greenville
Gave america all of Ohio after the Indians were defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind
Treaty of Paris 1763
Treaty between Britain, France and Spain which ended the Seven Years war, france lost canada and the land east of the Mississippi and some carribean islands. Spain was given New Orleans and the land West of the Mississippi to compensate for the loss of Florida to Britian
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War
A proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. Drafted by James Madison, it called for representation based on population.
British gov theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects including americans even if they did not vote for its members
Washington's Farewell Address
Speech by George Washington that warned Americans to stay out of foreign affairs and stay united(no political parties)
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax. Several federal officers were killed in the riots, it showed the strength of the new military.
Writs of Assistance
Documents that served as a general search warrant allowing officials to search anything
A commision sent to France to disscuss disputes over the Franco-American Treaty. President Adams had critizied the French Revolution so that they would break off relations with the US. Helped prevent war with France
committees of correspondence
organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress
Collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
a period from 1607-1763 in which England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws, which allowed the colonies to flourish as almost independent states for many years.
A place for George Washington to rest his men and train them. During a harsh winter in Valley Forge there had been horrible outcomes of staying there. The men where getting diseases and sick because of the cold and lack of supplies.
British offer to the colonists after the Battle of Saratoga.
"No taxation without representation"
Rally cry for colonists.
Man recalled by Washington for trying "stir up" French support, which went against the isolationistic policy of the new nation