Ch. 17-21 Review US History
U.S. History 102 Unit II Review Dr. Popielarski BCC History 102
Terms in this set (61)
Investigative Journalism who propelled Progressivism by exposing economic monopolies, social moral decay, and political corruption, so named by Teddy Roosevelt for its "raking the muck."
allowed women suffrage in 1920 (the right to vote)
A constitutional amendment ratified in 1913 requiring the popular election of U.S. senators. Senators were previously chosen by state legislatures.
a, 1919 prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation of liquor, Volstead Act
Referendum allows the people to state their opinion on laws that have been enacted by the legislature
initiative allows the people to propose their own laws.
The right or procedure by which a public official may be removed from a position by a vote of the people prior to the end of the term of office
Northern Securities Company
In 1906, the Supreme court made headlines by upholding Roosevelt's antitrust suit against this Rail Road company. The company itself was organized by J. P. Morgan and James. J. Hill. The suit angered Wall Street and big business, but enhanced TR's reputation as a trust-buster.
A social and political philosophy based on the belief that democratic means should be used to evenly distribute wealth throughout a society, the middle between capitalism and Communistism
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
Roosevelt's progressive reform platform for from 1910 to 1912 election. called for establishing a strong federal gov. to regulate corporations, stabilize the economy, protect the weak, and restore social harmony.
economic system based on private ownership of property and business, according to the principle that economic activity should take place within the market. Some proponents believe the government should have little to no role in free-market capitalism ( Adam Smith)
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
1912 presidential election
In 1912 republican convention Taft was re nominated after being picked in 1908 by Roosevelt himself, some republican got mad and started the progressive party and they nominated Roosevelt the democrats were able to win because of the split, Wilson won. Wilson was barely re-elected In 1916,
Rare 4 way race between Eugene Debs, Woodrow Wilson. Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt. Wilson won because Taft and Roosevelt split the republican vote.
Roosevelt's Progressive Party, popularly known as the "Bull Moose Party,"
Also known as reformers, came about in the late 1800's, they worked to solve problems created by rapid industrial & urban growth. Many fought crime, disease, & poverty. Many of these were part of the growing middle class.
As a leader of organized labor and a presidential candidate for the Socialist Party, he passionately fought for radical social change in the United States. By 1893, he had organized the American Railway Union (ARU) and called a national strike that quickly tied up the nation's railroads to support the Pullman strike in Chicago. He was arrested and indicted on the charge of interfering with the mail. During the six months he spent in jail, he read socialist literature. Between 1904 and 1920, he ran as the Socialist candidate for president five times.
(President from 1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson after he and Roosevelt split the Republican party when they had the falling out over sever issues including Pinchot/Ballinger.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Anti monopoly law that specifically stated that unions could not be considered "combinations in restraint of trade" and therefore unions could not be prosecuted under anti-monopoly laws.
Meat Inspection Act
Was TR's plan after reading the book "the jungle" by Sinclair., 1906 law required federal inspection of meat sold through interstate commerce and required the Agriculture Department to set standards of cleanliness in meatpacking plants (USDA standards)
In 1888, Wrote Looking Backward; said that capitalism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end. a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
San Fransisco journalist published a provocative book in 1879 that was an instant best seller. It jolted readers to look more critically at the effects of laissez-faire economics. A California printer, journalist, and influential activist whose ideas about taxes and reform, were widely propagated., -Reformer; critic of capitalism and a champion of the rights of labor believed that the Chinese were "unassimilable" and should be excluded (barbarians and savages)
Direct primary, initiative, referendum—these were the three basic tools that were put in place to make the voting system more democratic; before direct primaries, the decisions of who would be put on the ballot was made by government elected officials in place to do that job; with initiative, any Joe off the street can write a bill, get enough signatures, take it to the state government, and get it put up for voting as any other bill would without ever exchanging hands with elected political officials in the state government
A preliminary election, run by the state government, in which the voters choose each party's candidates for the general election.
1897-1901, Republican, supported gold standard, protective tariff, and Hawaiian Islands, against William Bryan (The Great Commoner), assassinated in 1901 opening the window for Teddy Roosevelt to take office as he was the Vice Pres at the time.
.28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act (1913)
The first successful downward revision of the tariff since the Civil War, the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act enacted an across-the-board reduction in tariffs, making manufacturers more efficient and providing consumers with competitive pricing. To compensate for lost revenue, a rider to the act created a small, graduated income tax.
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
"Battling Bob" / "Fighting Bob." Progressive Governor of Wisconsin who fought against the big corporations and who introduced many state-level reform in his state. He became a major leader of the Progressives. Tried to run for President in 1912, but he was replaced on the Progressive Party ticket by Theodore Roosevelt. As governor, he began the reform program called the Wisconsin Idea to make state government more professional
The Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Founded by W.E.B. DuBois, the NAACP won numerous cases which aided the Civil Rights Movement.
W. E. B. Du Bois
First African-American to receive a doctorate from Harvard. America's foremost black intellectual at the turn of the twentieth century, and an outspoken leader of the black cause. An American civil rights activist. He became the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, becoming founder and editor of the NAACP's journal, The Crisis. He rose to national attention in his opposition of Booker T. Washington's ideas of social integration between whites and blacks, campaigning instead for increased political representation for blacks in order to guarantee civil rights, and the formation of a Black elite that would work for the progress of the African American race. He was willing to form alliances with progressive White Americans in pursuit of civil rights. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's accommodationist posture
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality., he suggested that African Americans accept segregation-for now, (1856-1915) Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and focus on vocational and farming and proved their economic value to society, was founder of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. Was criticized for Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 (separate like fingers but together like hand.)
Monopoly / Pool / Trust
large corporations that controlled a substantial share of any given market. Because of greed and little care for workers, was a major reason why the progressive party was formed.
The Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program primarily aimed at helping middle class citizens. The policies involved attacking the plutocracy and trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of unorganized labor. Wanted to give everyone a shot, campaign slogan in the election of 1904. It was meant that all Americans should have an equal opportunity to succeed.
1912 Election, Woodrow Wilson (D)'s platform. favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and un-monopolized markets. Democrats shunned the social-welfare programs and supported the fragmentation of trusts., Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Federal Reserve Act 1913
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Clayton - Antitrust Act.
Passed during Wilson. Strengthened Sherman Antitrust act. Exempted labor unions from prosecution under antitrust laws. Legalized strikes and picketing. Victory for organized labor.
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
Secretary of Interior - turned over coal rich government lands to Alaskan investors and Pinchot turned him in and was later fired
One of the country's first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1881 as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired in 1910 by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.
1902 coal miners' strike
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania., This labor conflict, which threatened the nation's energy supply, was settled when Roosevelt got involved in the negotiations.
19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society, A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.
The Social Gospel
A protestant movement regarding poverty using Christian principles (education, no child labor, proactive organizations), A movement that believed that the church and society were obligated to help the less fortunate and wanted more government regulation.
2. Protestant movement in the 1880s as a reaction to industrialization, but became popular only after 1900 as a part of liberal Christian belief. This built on theological liberalism and modernism. It inherited from liberalism an emphasis on moral conduct as the core of Christian practice and insisted that Christian moral norms implied the need to fundamentally reform economic activity, which had hitherto been seen as occupying a 'separate' amoral sphere in which exploitation and ruthless competition were ok. From modernism, this took the impulse to reconcile religion and science, but while modernism was concerned with reconciling religion with natural science, the social gospel movement reached out to social science which it was as an ally in reforming society along Christian lines.
Women's Christian Temperance Movement
This women's union called for the national prohibition of alcohol. Led by Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation
Equitable access to resources and the benefits derived from them; a system that recognizes inalienable rights and adheres to what is fair, honest, and moral.
Cities began to elect city councils to make laws & have city managers(like a CEO). States passed laws regulating big business. , Created to help attack political corruption in cities (such as political machines). movement to inprove sanitation, police and fire, public health, adequate housing, fire codes , it was a Progressive Movement issue.
declared that all persons born in the US were citizenship, that all citizens were entitled to equal rights and their rights were protected by due process
Citizens (Men)cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude ( not women)
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
Women's Voices of change
Social Party for women focusing on the use of the creative arts in culture-making, peacemaking, and social change.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics., A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
The system, doctrine, and practice of the Roman Catholic Church., Religion headed by the pope; worship is centered in the gospel of Jesus Christ and the sacraments.
Progressivism & Blacks
Despite their zeal for reform, few progressives made race relations a priority, and in the South, leading progressives often endorsed racist policies.
2. In 1900 more than two-thirds of 10 million African Americans lived in the South; most were sharecroppers and tenant farmers. Rural or urban, Southern blacks faced poverty, discrimination, and limited employment opportunities.
3. At the end of the 19th century, Southern legislatures passed Jim Crow laws that separated blacks and whites in public places. Because blacks were deprived of the right to vote by the grandfather clause, poll taxes, or other means, their political participation was limited. Lynching increased, and a steady stream of black migrants moved north. From 1890 to 1910, some 200,000 African Americans left the South, and even more moved out during World War
A movement or doctrine that advocates or demands for women the same rights granted men, such as equal economic or political status.
26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, Started the progressive Party when he spilt with Pres.Taft. the Bull moose nickname. was loved by the American people as he was for the people.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Nominated by Democrats in 1912. Governor of New Jersey. Eventually he was named president of Princeton, where he enjoyed limited success in attempts to update the curriculum and democratize the elitist aspects of the University. He possessed an iron-will and, once in office, he pushed through a truly progressive program which included workmen's compensation laws, a corrupt-practices law, measures to regulate public utilities, and ballot reform.
2. .28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Square Deal - everyone from farmers and consumers to workers and owners should have the same opportunity to succeed. This deal led Roosevelt to a huge victory. Roosevelt thought that resources had to be used wisely. Under Roosevelt, in 1905, the U.S. Forest service was formed to conserve America's forests. He also had thousands of acres of land set aside for national parks. He also worked hard to destroy monopolies and trusts. He didn't dislike big bussiness, but he saw a difference between a good and bad trust. "Good trusts" were efficient and fair - Bad ones took advantage of workers and cheated the public by eliminating competition. He said the government must control or break up bad trusts> He did this in 1904, with the breakup of the Northern Securities Trust
Nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912. The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
Owens Keating Act
a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods produced by factories that employed children under fourteen, mines that employed children younger than sixteen, and any facility where children under sixteen worked at night or more than eight hours daily. The basis for the action was the constitutional clause giving Congress the task of regulating interstate commerce.