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AP Psychology: Modules 74-80
Terms in this set (47)
What is the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another?
What is the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition?
fundamental attribution error
What is the tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition?
What are the feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events?
peripheral route persuasion
What occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness?
central route persuasion
What occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts?
What is the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request?
What is a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave?
cognitive dissonance theory
What is the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts and inconsistent?
What is adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard?
normative social influence
What is influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval?
informational social influence
What is influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality?
What is improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others?
What is the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable?
What is the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity?
What is the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the groups?
What is the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives?
What are the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next?
What is an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior?
What is an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members?
What is a generalized belief about a group of people?
What is an unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members?
What is the tendency for people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get?
What is the "us" or people with whom we share a common identity?
What is the "them" or those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup?
What is the tendency to favor our own group?
What is the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame?
What is the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races?
What is any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy?
What is the principle that frustration creates anger, which can generate aggression?
What is culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations?
mere exposure effect
What is the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them?
What is an aroused state of intense positive adsorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship?
What is the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined?
What is a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it?
What is revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others?
What is unselfish regard for the welfare of others?
What is the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present?
social exchange theory
What is the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs?
What is an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them?
What is an expectation that people will help those needing their help?
What is a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas?
What is a situation in which the conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behavior?
What are mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive?
What is a belief that leads to its own fulfillment?
What are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation?
GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction)
What is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions?
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