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HIST 104 EXAM 3
Terms in this set (52)
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
As a relatively hidden form of rule, Economic Imperialism is practiced when a private company controls a less developed country. Early examples include the Dole Fruit Company controlling Hawaii before it became a state, the East India Tea Company's control of Raj India, and The Congo Free State's issuing of permits to businesses for exclusive rights to land and people.
a form of international relations in which sovereign entities protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic or political aggression.
the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Berlin Conference 1884-85
a series of negotiations (Nov. 15, 1884-Feb. 26, 1885) at Berlin, in which the major European nations met to decide all questions connected with the Congo River basin in Central Africa.
The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, was necessitated by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers viewed one another's attempts at colonial expansion in Africa. The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal's claims to the Congo River estuary—thereby making possible the founding of the independent Congo Free State, to which Great Britain, France, and Germany had already agreed in principle.
The relationship between two states one of which exercises some decisive control over the other. The degree of control may vary from a situation in which the protecting state guarantees and protects the safety of the other.
an authorization granted by the League of Nations to a member nation to govern a former German or Turkish colony. Following the defeat of Germany and Ottoman Turkey in World War I, their Asian and African possessions, which were judged not yet ready to govern themselves, were distributed among the victorious Allied powers under the authority of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations (itself an Allied creation). The mandate system was a compromise between the Allies' wish to retain the former German and Turkish colonies and their pre-Armistice declaration (November 5, 1918) that annexation of territory was not their aim in the war. The mandates were divided into three groups on the basis of their location and their level of political and economic development and were then assigned to individual Allied victors (mandatory powers, or mandatories).
Indian National Congress
broadly based political party of India. Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain. It subsequently formed most of India's governments from the time of independence and often had a strong presence in many state governments.
The Indian National Congress first convened in December 1885, though the idea of an Indian nationalist movement opposed to British rule dated from the 1850s. During its first several decades, the Congress Party passed fairly moderate reform resolutions, though many within the organization were becoming radicalized by the increased poverty that accompanied British imperialism. In the early 20th century, elements within the party began to endorse a policy of swadeshi ("of our own country"), which called on Indians to boycott of imported British goods and promoted Indian-made goods. By 1917 the group's "extremist" Home Rule wing, which was formed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant the previous year, had begun to exert significant influence by appealing to India's diverse social classes.
The India Act
Two armed conflicts in China in the mid-19th century between the forces of Western countries and of the Qing dynasty, which ruled China from 1644 to 1911/12. The first Opium War (1839-42) was fought between China and Britain, and the second Opium War (1856-60), also known as the Arrow War or the Anglo-French War in China, was fought by Britain and France against China. In each case the foreign powers were victorious and gained commercial privileges and legal and territorial concessions in China. The conflicts marked the start of the era of unequal treaties and other inroads on Qing sovereignty that helped weaken and ultimately topple the dynasty in favour of republican China in the early 20th century.
the immunities enjoyed by foreign states or international organizations and their official representatives from the jurisdiction of the country in which they are present.
through the clause on extraterritoriality in treaties after the Opium War, British subjects in China became answerable only to British law, even in disputes with Chinese.
Japanese teacher of military tactics in the domain of Chōshū. He studied "Dutch learning" (European studies) in Nagasaki and Edo and was deeply influenced by the pro-emperor thinkers in the domain of Mito. His radical pro-emperor stance influenced young samurai in Chōshū to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate. He was executed for an assassination plot against the shogun's representative in Kyōto.
prime minister who played a crucial role in building modern Japan. He helped draft the Meiji constitution (1889) and brought about the establishment of a bicameral national Diet (1890). He was created a marquess in 1884 and a duke (or prince) in 1907.
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