Earth System Science is a way of learning about how the Earth works as a system of interacting parts.
Our atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surround the Earth. Two gases, nitrogen and oxygen, make up most of the atmosphere by volume. Includes 5 layers (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere).
a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth. A cycle is a series of change which comes back to the starting point and which can be repeated. Examples: carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle
Subsystem of Earth that includes all living things: plants, animals, and their ecosystems
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
The lithosphere (crust) is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates.
Inner most layer of Earth. Made of solid iron and nickel.
Outer most layer of Earth. Made up of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks as well as metal ores and minerals. Sometimes the upper part is referred to as the Lithosphere.
Earth System Science
A branch of science that attempts to explain the interconnected workings of Earth's main subsystems: Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Geosphere, and Biosphere.
Part of the Earth system that includes all land, both continental and ocean floor. Also includes the rock cycle as well as the crust, mantle, and core.
All water on Earth. Also known as the water cycle.
The layer of Earth directly under the crust. Part of the mantle flows like a very thick liquid which allows the plates of the crust to "float" and move.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is exchanged among the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
A system which does not receive new inputs. Matter is considered a closed system on Earth.
A system which allows inputs to enter and outputs to leave the system. Energy is considered an open system on Earth.
Any interacting set of parts or components that forms a whole. Systems can be very different as a whole than their parts.
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