STEP #1: A Shared Experience2
The LEA process begins with something the class does together, such as a field trip, an experiment, or some other hands-on activity. If this is not possible, a sequence of pictures (that tell a story) can be used, as can a student describing a sequence of events from real life.
STEP #2: Creating the Text
Next, the teacher and students, as a group, verbally recreate the shared experience. Students take turns volunteering information, as in a large-group discussion. The teacher transcribes the student's words on the board in an organized way to create the text.
STEP #3: Read & Revise
The class reads the story aloud and discusses it. The teacher asks if the students want to make any corrections or additions to the story. Then she marks the changes they suggest and makes further suggestions, if needed.
STEP #4: Read and Reread
The final story can be read in a choral or echo style, or both. Students can also read in small groups or pairs, and then individually.1
STEP #5: Extension1
This text can be used for a variety of literacy activities like illustrations or creating comprehension questions.
Know how to communicate effectively and work within a team context.
Know how to observe special education students and record their behaviors objectively in order to help IEP teams track these students' progress.
Describe a student's performance and behaviors to emphasize the student's strengths.
Some general educators will need to learn how to describe a student's progress, weaknesses, and needs in appropriate, positive language. The idea is to describe the progress the student is making, no matter how small, and to focus on how to get to the next step. For example, "Jim can't add" is vague, derogatory, and doesn't describe what Jim can do. "Jim can count up to twenty by ones. We are working on having him count to fifty." is more positive, accurate, and points to the next goal.
See Positive Descriptions of Student Behavior
Convey to the other IEP team members an acceptance and willingness to actively participate in the IEP process.
Be willing to try new approaches in working with students with special needs.
Be willing to ask for additional assistance when this is needed.
Family Educational Rights Protection Act- FERPA-- Parents or eligible students have the right to inspect and review the student's education records maintained by the school. Schools are not required to provide copies of records unless, for reasons such as great distance, it is impossible for parents or eligible students to review the records. Schools may charge a fee for copies.
Parents or eligible students have the right to request that a school correct records which they believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the school decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student then has the right to a formal hearing. After the hearing, if the school still decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student has the right to place a statement with the record setting forth his or her view about the contested information.
Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student in order to release any information from a student's education record. However, FERPA allows schools to disclose those records, without consent, to the following parties or under the following conditions (34 CFR § 99.31):
School officials with legitimate educational interest;
Other schools to which a student is transferring;
Specified officials for audit or evaluation purposes;
Appropriate parties in connection with financial aid to a student;
Organizations conducting certain studies for or on behalf of the school;
To comply with a judicial order or lawfully issued subpoena;
Appropriate officials in cases of health and safety emergencies; and
State and local authorities, within a juvenile justice system, pursuant to specific State law.
Schools may disclose, without consent, "directory" information such as a student's name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, honors and awards, and dates of attendance. However, schools must tell parents and eligible students about directory information and allow parents and eligible students a reasonable amount of time to request that the school not disclose directory information about them. Schools must notify parents and eligible students annually of their rights under FERPA. The actual means of notification (special letter, inclusion in a PTA bulletin, student handbook, or newspaper article) is left to the discretion of each school.
birth through ages 18-24 months During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment.
Because they don't yet know how things react, they're constantly experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths, and learning about the world through trial and error. The later stages include goal-oriented behavior which brings about a desired result.
Between ages 7 and 9 months, infants begin to realize that an object exists even if it can no longer be seen. This important milestone -- known as object permanence -- is a sign that memory is developing.
After infants start crawling, standing, and walking, their increased physical mobility leads to increased cognitive development. Near the end of the sensorimotor stage, infants reach another important milestone -- early language development, a sign that they are developing some symbolic abilities.
explains that students function at different levels of discipline and states that schools should not expect all students to be disciplined the same. Mr. Churchward believes that rates of progression through the stages of Kohlberg's model differ from student to student, but that the progression from stage to stage is the same regardless of sex, race, or culture.
A brief summary of Churchward's ideas is offered below.
Churchward's main concern is that in a society that expects math, reading, and other subject's programs to be different for each student or each grade level, the discipline programs are the same at each level. He has developed a discipline program based on Kohlberg's ideas that take into account the moral development of each student. He, like Kohlberg, believed students followed a progression of stages on the road to self-discipline, and each student progressed through those stages at his or her own personal rate.
He renames the stages and offers some examples in his web page.
Stage 1: Recalcitrant Behavior The Power Stage: Might makes right!
Stage 2: Self-Serving Behavior The Reward/Punishment Stage:" What's in it for me?"
Stage 3: Interpersonal Discipline The Mutual Interpersonal Stage:" How can I please you?"
Stage 4: Self-Discipline The Social Order Stage:" I behave because it is the right thing to do."
Working Through the Stages
Churchward encourages teachers to work through the stages; not skip from stage to stage. He encourages teachers to talk to the student to see what is troubling him or her: "Whatever the cause, it is worth taking the time to talk with the student and see what's going on". He further encourages teachers to help students through the stages and most importantly, don't give up!
pre school program HighScope's educational approach emphasizes "active participatory learning." Active learning means students have direct, hands-on experiences with people, objects, events, and ideas. Children's interests and choices are at the heart of HighScope programs. They construct their own knowledge through interactions with the world and the people around them. Children take the first step in the learning process by making choices and following through on their plans and decisions. Teachers, caregivers, and parents offer physical, emotional, and intellectual support. In active learning settings, adults expand children's thinking with diverse materials and nurturing interactions.Through scaffolding, adults help children gain knowledge and develop creative problem-solving skills.
HighScope uses the term scaffolding to describe the process whereby adults support and gently extend children's thinking and reasoning. Scaffolding is a term introduced by developmental psychologist Jerome Bruner and is based on the work of psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky referred to the zone of proximal development as the area between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can do with the help of an adult or another child who is more developmentally advanced. HighScope teachers carefully observe children so they know when and how to enter this zone. Children must be secure and confident in what they already know before they are ready to move to the next level. When HighScope says adults support and extend children's learning, it means that the adults first validate, or support, what children already know, and then, when the time is right, gently encourage them to extend their thinking to the next level.
Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information? define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state
Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate
Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write.
LEVEL 1 - RECALL & REPRODUCTION
Curricular elements that fall into this category involve basic tasks that require students to recall or reproduce
knowledge and/or skills. The subject matter content at this particular level usually involves working with facts,
terms and/or properties of objects. It may also involve use of simple procedures and/or formulas. There is little
transformation or extended processing of the target knowledge required by the tasks that fall into this category.
Key words that often denote this particular level include: list, identify and define. A student answering a Level 1
item either knows the answer or does not; that is, the answer does not need to be "figured out" or "solved."
Show and Tell
Level 2 - Working with Skills & Concepts
Level 2 includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response. This level
generally requires students to contrast or compare people, places, events and concepts; convert information from
one form to another; classify or sort items into meaningful categories ; describe or explain issues and problems,
patterns , cause and effect, significance or impact, relationships, points of view or processes. A Level 2 "describe or
explain" would require students to go beyond a description or explanation of recalled information to describe or
explain a result or "how" or "why." The learner should make use of information in a context different from the one
in which it was learned.
Elements found in a curriculum that fall in this category involve working with or applying skills and/or concepts to
tasks related to the field of study in a laboratory setting. The subject matter content at this particular level usually
involves working with a set of principles, categories, heuristics, and protocols. At this level students are asked to
transform/process target knowledge before responding. Example mental processes that often denote this
particular level include: summarize, estimate, organize, classify, and infer.
Relationship Mind Maps
LEVEL 3 - SHORT-TERM STRATEGIC THINKING
Items falling into this category demand a short-term use of higher order thinking processes, such as analysis and
evaluation, to solve real-world problems with predictable outcomes. Stating one's reasoning is a key marker of
tasks that fall into this particular category. The expectation established for tasks at this level tends to require
coordination of knowledge and skill from multiple subject-matter areas to carry out processes and reach a solution
in a project-based setting. Key processes that often denote this particular level include: analyze, explain and
support with evidence, generalize, and create.
Level 4 - Extended Strategic Thinking
Curricular elements assigned to this level demand extended use of higher order thinking processes such as
synthesis, reflection, assessment and adjustment of plans over time. Students are engaged in conducting
investigations to solve real-world problems with unpredictable outcomes. Employing and sustaining strategic
thinking processes over a longer period of time to solve the problem is a key feature of curricular objectives that
are assigned to this level. Key strategic thinking processes that denote this particular level include: synthesize,
reflect, conduct, and manage.
Basic trust vs. basic mistrust—This stage covers the period of infancy, 0-1 year of age, which is the most fundamental stage of life. Whether the baby develops basic trust or basic mistrust is not merely a matter of nurture. It is multi-faceted and has strong social components. It depends on the quality of the maternal relationship. The mother carries out and reflects their inner perceptions of trustworthiness, a sense of personal meaning, etc. on the child. If successful in this, the baby develops a sense of trust, which "forms the basis in the child for a sense of identity." Failure to develop this trust will result in a feeling of fear and a sense that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Autonomy vs. Shame—Covers early childhood around 1-3 years old. Introduces the concept of autonomy vs. shame and doubt. During this stage the child is trying to master toilet training.
Purpose, Initiative vs. Guilt—Preschool / 3-6 years. Does the child have the ability to or do things on their own, such as dress him or herself? If "guilty" about making his or her own choices, the child will not function well. Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying that most guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment.
Competence, Industry vs. Inferiority—School-age / 6-11 years. Child comparing self-worth to others (such as in a classroom environment). Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children. Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure that children do not feel inferior.
Fidelity, Identity vs. Role Confusion—Adolescent / 12-18 years. Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? Erikson believes, that if the parents allow the child to explore, they will conclude their own identity. If, however, the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion.
Intimacy vs. isolation—This is the first stage of adult development. This development usually happens during young adulthood, which is between the ages of 18 to 35. Dating, marriage, family and friendships are important during the stage in their life. By successfully forming loving relationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and intimacy. Those who fail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone.
Generativity vs. stagnation—The second stage of adulthood happens between the ages of 35-64. During this time people are normally settled in their life and know what is important to them. A person is either making progress in their career or treading lightly in their career and unsure if this is what they want to do for the rest of their working lives. Also during this time, a person is enjoying raising their children and participating in activities, that gives them a sense of purpose. If a person is not comfortable with the way their life is progressing, they're usually regretful about the decisions and feel a sense of uselessness.
Ego integrity vs. despair—This stage affects the age group of 65 and on. During this time an individual has reached the last chapter in their life and retirement is approaching or has already taken place. Ego-integrity means the acceptance of life in its fullness: the victories and the defeats, what was accomplished and what was not accomplished. Wisdom is the result of successfully accomplishing this final developmental task. Wisdom is defined as "informed and detached concern for life itself in the face of death itself."[