Unit 3 HWW
So so so so so annoying!
Terms in this set (62)
What was the main reason for European exploration?
Desire for new sources of wealth
What industry sparked an interest in exploration?
Trade of spices and other luxury good from Asia
Why did some European countries feel the need to bypass the italian merchants?
They sold the goods at extremely high prices to make a profit
In what other way did the Crusades play a role in later European exploration?
It created hostile feelings between Muslims and Christians. After Crusades, Europeans continues to demand spices
Explain three technological advancements that made European exploration possible:
1. New vessel, the caravel, was sturdy
3. Magnetic compass
How did Prince Henry play a role in Portugal's exploration of the world?
Was determined to reach the east. Founded a navigation school
What did Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias accomplish?
sailed around the tip of Africa
What did Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama accomplish?
a direct sea route to India
How did Christopher Columbus' voyage enhance the rivalry between Spain and Portugal?
(Columbus was Spanish)
Portugal thought that he had reached Asia in lands that they might have reached first.
How did Pope Alexander VI resolve the dispute?
Made Treaty of Tordesillas, which agreed to the Line of Demarcation in Atlantic Ocean to separate Spain and Portugal
How was Portugal able to extend its control of the spice trade?
Defeated a muslin fleet off the coast of India
What area declared its independence from Spain in 1581?
Netherlands (Dutch Republic)
Explain the importance of the British and Dutch East India Companies:
Establish and direst trade throughout Asia
Dutch- rich and powerful. Drove out English and established dominance in East Indies
British (English) - Established outposts India where they were successful in trading cloth
How were the Dutch able to dominate Southeast Asia?
Had a strong Dutch East India Company, had many ships, and expanded
What region did the Dutch control by 1700?
much on Indonesia, had trading posts in several Asian countries, and controlled Good Hope
Where did the British East India Company turn after it was pushed out of SE Asia by the Dutch?
islands (valuable spice ones)
Where did Columbus mistakenly think he landed in October 1492? Where did he most likely land?
East Indies, he was really in the Bahamas
What was Columbus' goal during his second voyage to the Americas?
transform the areas into colonies
Explain the accomplishments of:
1) Portugal's Pedro Alvares Cabral:
2) Portugal's Amerigo Vespucci:
3) Portugal's Ferdinand Magellan:
4) Spain's Hernando Cortes:
Pedro Alvares Cabral: claimed Brazil for Portugal
Amerigo Vespucci: claimed the land wasn't part of Asia, but a "new world" (America is named after him)
Ferdinand Magellan: First to circumnavigate (sail) across the world.
Hernando Cortes: Followers were called Conquistadors and carved out Mexico, South America, and the U.S.
Explain the three factors that allowed Cortes to conquer the Aztecs:
1. Better weapons
2. Help from Natives
3. Diseases brought by Cortes;s group
Who was Francisco Pizarro?
conquistador, and conquered the Incan Empire
How did Pizarro conquer the Incas in Peru?
Crushed Incan force and kidnapped ruler, Atahualpa. He told Pizarro he's fill a room once with gold and twice with silver for his release. Once they got the gold and silver, they strangle Atahualpa anyways
Who were the peninsulares?
spanish settlers to the Americas
mixed Spanish and Native America population
Explain the encomienda system:
natives farmed and worked for the Spanish settlers. Sometimes natives were abused
Why was the colony of Brazil profitable for Portugal?
sugar grew well in it, and the demand for sugar in Europe was high
What were the accomplishments of:
1) Spain's Juan Ponce de Leon?
2) Spain's Francisco Vasquez de Coronado?
Juan Ponce de Leon: landed in Florida and claimed it for Spain
Vasquez de Coronado: led an expedition through Kansas, Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
What role did Spanish priests play in changing Spain's colonies?
converted people into Catholicism
Explain the accomplishments of:
1) France's Jacques Cartier?
2) France's Samuel de Champlain?
3) France's Sieur de La Salle?
Jacques Cartier: Hoping to find a sea route to the Pacific, he didn't find that but he reached a gulf off of the eastern coast of Canada. He named it St. Lawrence. He then found a land with lots of mountains and named it Mount Real (Montreal)
Samuel de Champlain: Founded Quebec
Sieur de La Salle: Explored lower Mississippi and claimed entire River Valley for France. He named it Louisiana after the French king, Louis
How large was the colony known as New France by the early 1700s?
covered much of midwestern US and eastern Canada
What was New France's main economic activity?
What did the English establish in 1607? Where? Where did the name come from?
Jamestown in Virginia. Came from King James.
What happened in the early stages of this colony?
People wanted to find gold and did not farm, so it failed at first. Mostly single men moved there. 1/10 of people died from hunger, disease and war
Who were the Puritans? What was their goal?
(Founded 2nd English colony) Sought religious freedom from Angelica church. To build a model community and set an example for Christians
Who was Henry Hudson? What did he do?
An Englishman in service of the Dutch looking for northwest sea route to Asia. Explored 2 waterways: Hudson River, Straight, and Bay
What region of North America became New Netherland?
Dutch's holding. (Along Hudson River and Manhattan Island)
What areas of the Caribbean did the following European countries colonize?
France: Haiti, Guadeloupe, and Martinique
England: Barbados and Jamaica
Netherlands: Atilles and Aruba
How did New Netherland become New York?
English Duke of York drove the Dutch out and renamed it.
What was the cause of the French and Indian War (1754 - 1763)? What was the outcome?
Land Disputes in Ohio Valley. French Vs. British. British won, and got eastern half of North America
How was the relationship between Dutch / French settlers and Native Americans different from that of English settlers and Native Americans?
Dutch/French had good relationship with them because they traded.
English made their colonies more popular and tried driving natives out. They had many disputes with the natives, who eventually died out from disease.
What was the main reason for a huge decline in Native American population in the 17th century?
Why were Europeans forced to look to Africa for cheap labor for their American colonies?
farmers needed large supply of workers, and natives died.
How did the spread of Islam into Africa impact the African slave trade? Why?
muslims believed that non-muslim prisoners of war could be slaves
What was life like for a slave in African society?
had some legal rights
What were the four advantages identified by Europeans in using Africans in the Americas?
1. Immune to diseases
2. experienced farming
3. didn't know the land so less likely to escape
4. Black, so easier to catch
By the end of the Atlantic slave trade, how many Africans had been sent to the Americas?
Why would Africans capture other Africans and sell them into slavery?
They got gold, goods, and guns
Explain the system known as the triangular trade:
1) Route One:
2) Route Two:
Route one: Europeans sent manufactured good > Africa who gave them slaves > west indies brought sugar, coffee, and tobacco to Europe
Route two: New England sent rum and other goods > Africa which were exchanged for Africans who were transported to West Indies and sold for sugar. That sugar was then sold to rum producers in New England
Describe the middle passage:
Cruel voyage where slaves were transported
What was the Columbian Exchange?
global transport of food, plants, and animals
What were some of the new products introduced to the Old World (Europe, Asia, Africa)?
Potatoes and corn
What were some of the new products introduced to the New World (the Americas)?
What is capitalism?
an economic system based on private ownership and investment of resources, such as money, for profit
How did exploration lead to the growth of capitalism?
Government was no longer sole owner of wealth. Merchants grew rich and invested $ in trade and explorations and invested the profit they received from that into other companies, causing them to flourish
How did exploration lead to inflation across Europe?
More money to spend led to a high demand, and less supply, so prices raised.
What was a joint-stock company?
investors bought shares of stock in a company. Involved and number of people combining their money for a common purpose
What was the appeal of investing in a joint-stock company?
Involved numerous investors, so if you lost money, it was only a little.
Explain the theory of mercantilism:
Countries power depends on its wealth
What is a favorable balance of trade?
(based on mercantilism) selling more goods then buying. Wanted to be able to be self sufficient
How did these economic changes impact European society?
growth of towns and rise of a class of merchants who controlled great wealth
Class systems? (Highest to lowest)
Mestizos & Mulattos
The impact of European Exploration?
1) merchants who invest overseas get rich
2) nobles lose power...because their wealth was in land at home.
3) Inflation! Limited supply of new goods
& high demand causes prices to rise,
causing ordinary people to fall further
4) monarchs gain power, European rivalries