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chapter 2 palmer test review

STUDY
PLAY
secularization
process of developing activities outside of religion
mongols
after 1240 held Russia in subjugation for 200 years
kosovo
battle here in 1389, Serbian defeated by Ottomans
bubonic plague
also 'Black Death' killed close to fifty percent from 1348 to 1500
"jacqueries
nickname for peasants
wat tyler rebellion
occured in 1381 during the plague (chaos)
hundred years war
began in 1333 between England and France
joan of arc
burned at Rouen in 1431, popular patriotism
Rouen
where Joan of Arc was burned
Jack Cade's rebellion
broke out in 1450 at start of Wars of Roses
Edward I
began in 1290s to tax church
Philip the Fair
began in 1290s to tax church
Boniface VIII
pope who prohibited taxation of church
Unam Sanctam
issued by Boniface in 1302 (everyone must adhere to the pope)
Avignon
where French pop resided
"Babylonian Captivity
French arrestin Boniface
Great Schism of the West
College of Cardinals elect 2 popes. on in Rome and the other in Avignon
annates
bishop or abbot was to give first year income to church
bull
a threat and most solome form of papal edict
Dance of Death
during questioning of the church
Black Mass
worshipping hell
Order of Flagellants
marched through streets beating each other
William Langland
wrote Piers Plowman
Piers Plowman
discussed hypocrisy and corruption of church
Lollards
in England critical of wealth
John Wyclif
criticized church and papacy, branded heretic
John Huss
criticized church and papacy, branded heretic
Council of Pisa
chruch council from all parts of west, result was 3 popes
Council of Constance
1414,end 3 popes, end heresy, reform church
Martin V
appointed new pope after 3 popes ended, declare popes supreme to church
simony
selling or buying of church offices
nepotism
people in power giving jobs to friends or family
indulgences
selling of divine grace by Church
Sanction of Bourges
1438 Gallican Catholics say council supreme over pope
Nicholas V
(1447-1455) responisble for Vatican library
Pius II
renaisannce pope and scholar (1458-1464)
Innocent VIII
first pope to dine in public with women
Alexander VI
pope that exploited office for benefit of his relatives
lucretia borgia
daughter of alexander VI, gathered literary men and artists
juilius II
talented general willing to us military force to ensure power of church
Leo X
superb patron of architects and painters, promoted fantastic accomplishments of Renaissance in Italy
dante
wrote Divine Comedy, died before 1375
boccaccio
writer in the renaissance of italy, died before 1375
petrarch
writer in the renaissance of italy, died before 1375
machiavelli
writer who lived until 1527
giovanni de medici
merchant and banker in florence, founder of family fortune
cosimo de medici
son of giovanni and unofficial ruler of florence
lorenzo
grandson of cosimo, poet and benefactor of arts, became a grand duchy in 16th century
virtu
quality of being a man
leonardo da vince
the "last supper" present beauty and desirable world
savonarola
priest who led movement and was tried and burned at the stake in 1498
humanism
rising interest in human letters
divine comedy
written by dante in italian
decameron
written by boccaccio in italian
bruni
wrote history of florence
lorenzo valla
one of the founders of textual criticism
castiglione
wrote the book of the courtier
condottieri
professional fighters hired by merchants and bankers
the prince
handbook on statecraft by niccolo machiavelli
thomas moore
northern humanist in england, beheaded by henry VIII
erasmus
northern humanist of rotterdam
pagan humanism
south, humanists avoided christianity
christian humanism
north, emphasized christianity (hebrew and Greek)
fugger
johann fugger, one of the wealthiest bankers in europe
nicholas of cusa
churchman whose mystical philosophy entered later into developing mathematics and science
copernicus
believed the earth moved around the sun
behaim and schoner
germans who made the first globes
paracelsus
attempted to improve medicine at the university of basel
dr. faustus
educated german of 16th century, said he soul his soul to the devil for power and knowledge
christopher marlowe
1593 dramatized faustus in england
oswald spengler
in his decline of west used "faustian" to symbolize doom of europe
meister eckhart
believed individual soul could communicate directly with god
thomas a kempis
mystic wrote imitation of christ
gerard groote
attracted followers with his sermons on spritual regeneration
praise of folly
satire of clergies world pretensions and ambitions
handbook of a christian knight
showed how many could take part in the affairs of the world and remain a devout christian
salus populi suprema lex
welfare of the people in the highest law
tudors
dynasty of nobility in england 1485-1603
wars of roses
won by henry VII power struggle
livery and maintenance
right of a duke or count to have his own army
star chamber
created by henry VII, royal council to settle disputes by the nobility
henry VII
first of the tudor dynasty, viewed as unpleasant but good ruler
valois
line of kings in france starting with louis XI
Louis XI
expanded borders of france, more power to tax than the tudors
pragmatic sanction
gave french king control over the church
francis I
1516, pope leo X reached an agreement with him
ferdinand of aragon
married to isabella, controlled balearic islands
isabella of castile
controlled castile and americas,1469 married
Cardinal Ximenes
rid Catholic Church of abuses of European Churches
Granada
Moors pushed from here in 1492
Moriscos
Moors that converted to Catholicism
Marranos
Jews that converted to Catholicism
Inquisition
totrure used to extract confessions