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History chapter 25 sec 1
Terms in this set (17)
What events led to nationalistic movements in Italy?
The events that led to nationalistic movements in Italy were the unification of Italy for a short period by Napoleon and that many Italians had been inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution.
How did the Congress of Vienna in 1815 divide Italy?
The Congress of Vienna in 1815 divided Italy into several large and small states.
Define the nationalist movement of Risorgimento.
The nationalist movement of Risorgimento was when many thinkers and writers tried to revive interest in Italy's traditions. Its goals were liberation (freedom) and unification.
Discuss the nationalist Carbonari, Giuseppe Mazzini and Young Italy movement.
The nationalist Carbonari was a secret society group. Giuseppe Mazzini was a Carbonari. In 1831, Mazzini called for all Italian patriots to join his Young Italy Movement. The Young Italy Movement was dedicated to spreading ideas of the risorgimento. Mazzini insisted that a republic should rule Italy, "neither pope nor king."
-What were the results of the Italian 1848 liberal/nationalist revolts?
The results of the Italian 1848 liberal (civil rights)/nationalist (love for ones country) revolts were failures. They overthrew Austrian rule in Lombardy and Venetia, and forced some rulers in other states to agree to constitutions. Mazzini and two other men ruled the newly captured Rome. These victories did not last long. Austria recaptured some of the land in the north in 1849. Monarchs in the other states returned to the throne, getting rid of the new constitutions. The Kingdom of Sardinia, however, remained an independent state. Liberals had little success after these many failures
Why didn't the liberals want the pope to lead a federation of Italy?
The liberals didn't want the pope to lead a federation of Italy because the pope did not support their revolt in 1849 (when revolutionaries seized Rome, setting up a Republic). The liberals wanted a
constitutional monarchy under King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia.
What were the two other government styles that the people of Italy were considering and who would their leaders have been if they used these styles?
The two other government styles that the Italians were considering were a constitutional monarchy and a republic. If the people of Italy chose to have a constitutional monarchy their leader would be King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. He wasn't sympathetic with the liberals and wanted to expand Sardinian land. The Republic would have been ruled by the pope.
Who was Cavour? What kind of government system did he like? What did he want Sardinia to lead the way in for Italy?
Cavour was King Victor Emmanuel II`s chief minister who supported the liberals ideas. He wanted Sardinia to lead the way by industrializing and unifying Italy. He was an Italian patriot who supported liberal ideas.
How did Cavour reorganize and strengthen Sardinia?
Cavour reorganized and strengthen Sardinia's army, he established banks, factories and railroads and improved trade. He tried to reduce the church's and the Jesuit's political influence. Made alliances with France and Great Britain to increase political power.
-Because Cavour saw Austria as the greatest threat to Italian unification, what secret plan did he strategize with Nappy III?
Cavour made a secret plan with Napoleon III in which Napoleon agreed to send french troops to help Cavour fight Austria. If Cavour could provoke the Austrian's to attack, in return Cavour gave Napoleon III a portion of Sardinia's land.
How did the initial War with Austria go in 1859?
Initially the war with Austria went as planned until Prussia united with Austria and Napoleon III, fearing defeat, signed an armistice (stopped fighting).
Why did Nappy III change his position? Results of war?
Napoleon III changed his position because he didn't want to to have to fight the combined forces of Austria and Prussia. The results of the war were that Sardinia got possession of Lombardy, Austria kept Venetia and France was given the parts of Sardinia, Nice and Savoy even though they didn't follow through on their side of the deal fully.
-What role did nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi play?
He led the way of Italian Nationalists who wanted freedom and became a hero within and outside of Italy. Garibaldi recruited an army of more than 1000 soldiers and in the spring of 1860, he and his "Expedition of the Thousand" invaded and captured Sicily. Then his forces seized Naples. They then drove King Francis II and his troops north to the border of the Papal States. Celebrated for his military skill, Garibaldi became a hero both within and outside of Italy.
How did Cavour react when he realized that Garibaldi was heading to Rome?
When Cavour realized that Garibaldi was heading to Rome, he feared that Garibaldi might displace Victor Emmanuel II as Italy's leader and set up a republic of his own. So Cavour sent an army south to stop Garibaldi's advance. In the process, Sardinia annexed most of the territory of the Papal States. (Dr. Cavar would love a box of Ghirardelli Chocolates)
What agreement did Garibaldi and King Victor Emmanuel II establish?
Garibaldi and King Victor Emmanuel II met in Naples in 1860. Garibaldi wanted to become the governor of Naples, but the King refused because he did not want him to rise to a higher power. Garibaldi promised to support the establishment of the kingdom of Italy, with Victor Emmanuel II as king.
-How was Italian unification finally achieved?
Italian unification was finally achieved when people everywhere in Italy, except Venetia and Rome, held plebiscites during 1860. They voted overwhelmingly for national unity under the king of Sardinia. Meeting in Turin in 1861, representatives of the various states confirmed Victor Emmanuel II as king of Italy. In 1866, Italy gained Venetia in a war with Austria, and in 1870, Rome's citizens voted for union with Italy. The next year, Rome was pro class the capital of the kingdom of Italy.
What problems did the new Italian state face?
Although politically united, the new Italian state faced many problems. Few Italians had experience with self-government. Regions of the country remained divided by cultural traditions, and tensions grew between the industrialized north and the agricultural south. The standard of living of most Italians was low and labor problems arose. There was a conflict between political groups and different dialects. They gained nothing with the battle of the Ottoman Empire. The conquest of Libya strengthened ITaly's position in the Mediterranean region, but further divided the nation.
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