impairment of language, affects production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write.
always due to injury to the brain-most commonly from a stroke, particularly in older individuals. But brain injuries resulting in aphasia may also arise from head trauma, from brain tumors, or from infections.
what does aphasia mean
Impairment in understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language in syntactic order. Type and severity of disorder vary greatly Auditory comprehension difficulties and word retrieval issues seem to be common across all severities in all aphasics Memory may be impaired in some way Not the result of motor speech impairment, dementia or deterioration of intelligence.
aphasia may affect
listening, speaking, reading, writing as well as other specific language functions (naming)
aphasia language function affects
arithmetic, gesturing, telling time, counting money, interpreting environmental sounds
aphasia expressive deficits
reduced vocabulary, omission or addition of words, word substitutions, very rapid speech with few pauses (hyperfluent), may be incoherent, inefficient and pragmatically inappropriate
difficulty writing. may not be able to write what they are able to say
alexia or dyslexia
inability to read
difficulty naming, word finding problems (its a...a....you know, that thing)
meaningless or irrelevant speech (nonsense) with typical intonation, may be syntactically correct (shoes dont eat over the umbrella)
a novel word or expression, many times meaningless. May create own words and use them confidently. "cow juice and cookies, that's what I like especially mixed up chocolate"
word substitutions found in clients who may talk fluently and grammatically. ("I need the pen...pen...pencil and the sheet...peeper)
an expression repeated over and over ("I see, I see, I see, I see")
- characterized by word substitutions, neologisms, verbose verbal output. Lesions tend to be in posterior portions of left hemisphere
characterized by slow labored speech and struggle to retrieve words and form sentences. Generally site of lesion is in or near frontal lobe.
Wernicke's Anomic Conduction Trans Cortical Sensorhy
Brain damage to posterior left temporal lobe Fluent or hyperfluent Speech comprehension: impaired to poor Speech char.: verbal paraphasia, jargon Reading comprehension: impaired Naming: impaired Speech repetition: impaired
Fluent Speech comprehension: mild to mod. Impaired Speech char.: word retrieval and misnaming, syntax and artic are good Reading comprehension: good Naming: severely impaired in speech and writing
Fluent Speech comprehension: mild impairment Speech char: paraphasia and incorrect ordering, frequent attempts to self-correct, good artic and syntax Reading comprehension: good Naming: usually impaired Speech repetition: poor
Brain damage to anterior frontal lobe of left cerebral hemisphere Speech comprehension: pretty good Speech char.: short sentences, aggrammatism, slow, labored, artic and phonological errors Reading comprehension: unimpaired to poor Naming: poor Speech repetition: poor
transcortical motor aphasia
Brain damage to motor cortex, possibly well below surface of the brain Speech comprehension: mildly impaired Speech char.: impaired, labored, difficulty initiating, syntax errors Reading comprehension: unimpaired to poor Naming: poor Speech repetition: good
Brain damage to deep subcortical area in region of lateral fissure in left hemisphere Speech comprehension: poor, limited to single words and short phrases Speech char.: little spontaneous speech Reading comprehension: poor Naming: poor Speech repetition: poor