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Quiz 4 study guide Intro to communication disorders

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What is the Nervous system
the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
Central nervous sytem
complex of nerve tissues that controls
the activities of the body.
Comprises the brain and spinal cord (associated nerves and sense organs)
peripheral nervous system
the nervous system outside the brain
and spinal cord
neuron
basic unit of the nervous system
cell body, axon, dendrites
nerve
collection of neurons
synapse
a junction between two nerve cells
electrochemical impulses passing between the axon of one neuron to the dendrites of another across the synapse
CNS the brain consists of
cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem
cerebrum
sensory and motor functions of cerebrym are mostly contralateral
covered gray cortex of cell bodies approximately .25 inch thick
brain divided into
two hemispheres (left and right)
4 lobes
temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital
gyri and sulci
reason why the cortex of the brain is wrinkled
sulci/fissures
grooves and valleys
gyri
bumps, hills,seen on surface of the brain
dominant for speech and language in 98% of individuals
left hemisphere
cerebellum
consists of right and left
cerebellar hemispheres and central vermis
(connects two hemispheres)
cerebellum
coordinates the control of
fine, complex motor activities, maintains
muscle tone, and participates in motor
learning
cerebellum
also has considerable
influence on language processing and
higher-level cognitive and effective
functions
broca's area
located in left frontal
area of brain, responsible for
working memory and enabling
motor cortex for speech, some
grammar
wernicke's area
located in left
temporal lobe of brain, responsible
for processing of language
wernicke's area
assisted by the angular gyrus for words
and the supramarginal gyrus for
grammar
broca's area
sends programming
information to the motor cortex,
which sends signals to the motor
neurons for speech.
language impairments that develop or occur during adulthood
Aphasia
Right hemisphere brain damage
Traumatic brain injury
Degenerative neurological conditions.
aphasia
impairment of language, affects production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write.
aphasia
always due to injury to the brain-most commonly from a stroke, particularly in older individuals.
But brain injuries resulting in aphasia may also arise from head trauma, from brain tumors, or from infections.
what does aphasia mean
without language
aphasia
Impairment in understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language in syntactic order.
Type and severity of disorder vary greatly
Auditory comprehension difficulties and word retrieval issues seem to be common across all severities in all aphasics
Memory may be impaired in some way
Not the result of motor speech impairment, dementia or deterioration of intelligence.
aphasia may affect
listening,
speaking,
reading,
writing as well as other specific language functions (naming)
aphasia language function affects
arithmetic,
gesturing,
telling time,
counting money,
interpreting environmental sounds
aphasia expressive deficits
reduced vocabulary,
omission or addition of words,
word substitutions,
very rapid speech with few pauses (hyperfluent),
may be incoherent, inefficient and pragmatically inappropriate
accompanying/concomitant deficits
Hemiparesis
Hemiplegia
Hemisensory
Hemianopsia
Dysphagia
hemiparesis
weakness on one side of the body
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body
hemisensory impairment
loss of ability to perceive sensory information on affected side (may have trouble chewing and swallowing - dysphagia)
hemianopsia
blindness in right vusal field of each eye
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing, chewing, accompanying drooling, gagging
agnosia
difficulty understanding incoming sensory information. May be auditory of visual specific
characteristics related to aphasia
Agnosia
Agrammatism
Agraphia
Alexia or Dyslexia
Anomia
Jargon
Neologism
Paraphasia
Verbal Stereotype
agrammatism
omission of grammatical elements (take dog walk)
agraphia
difficulty writing. may not be able to write what they are able to say
alexia or dyslexia
inability to read
anomia
difficulty naming, word finding problems (its a...a....you know, that thing)
jargon
meaningless or irrelevant speech (nonsense) with typical intonation, may be syntactically correct (shoes dont eat over the umbrella)
neologism
a novel word or expression, many times meaningless. May create own words and use them confidently. "cow juice and cookies, that's what I like especially mixed up chocolate"
paraphasia
word substitutions found in clients who may talk fluently and grammatically. ("I need the pen...pen...pencil and the sheet...peeper)
verbal stereotype
an expression repeated over and over ("I see, I see, I see, I see")
fluent aphasia
- characterized by word substitutions, neologisms, verbose verbal output. Lesions tend to be in posterior portions of left hemisphere
nonfluent aphasia
characterized by slow labored speech and struggle to retrieve words and form sentences. Generally site of lesion is in or near frontal lobe.
fluent aphasias
Wernicke's
Anomic
Conduction
Trans Cortical Sensorhy
wernicke's aphasia
Brain damage to posterior left temporal lobe
Fluent or hyperfluent
Speech comprehension: impaired to poor
Speech char.: verbal paraphasia, jargon
Reading comprehension: impaired
Naming: impaired
Speech repetition: impaired
anomic aphasia
Fluent
Speech comprehension: mild to mod. Impaired
Speech char.: word retrieval and misnaming, syntax and artic are good
Reading comprehension: good
Naming: severely impaired in speech and writing
conduction aphasia
Fluent
Speech comprehension: mild impairment
Speech char: paraphasia and incorrect ordering, frequent attempts to self-correct, good artic and syntax
Reading comprehension: good
Naming: usually impaired
Speech repetition: poor
transcortical sensory aphasia
Fluent
Speech comprehension: poor
Speech char.: paraphasia, perseveration
Reading comprehension: impaired to poor
Naming: poor
Speech repetition: poor
nonfluent aphasias
Broca's
Transcortical Motor
Global
brocas aphasia
Brain damage to anterior frontal lobe of left cerebral hemisphere
Speech comprehension: pretty good
Speech char.: short sentences, aggrammatism, slow, labored, artic and phonological errors
Reading comprehension: unimpaired to poor
Naming: poor
Speech repetition: poor
transcortical motor aphasia
Brain damage to motor cortex, possibly well below surface of the brain
Speech comprehension: mildly impaired
Speech char.: impaired, labored, difficulty initiating, syntax errors
Reading comprehension: unimpaired to poor
Naming: poor
Speech repetition: good
global aphasia
Brain damage to deep subcortical area in region of lateral fissure in left hemisphere
Speech comprehension: poor, limited to single words and short phrases
Speech char.: little spontaneous speech
Reading comprehension: poor
Naming: poor
Speech repetition: poor