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100 terms

A&P Study Guide 15-17 & 5

Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the
stratum corneum
Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called
Ruffini corpuscles
All of the following compose the epithelial projections found on the tongue, except
gustatory papillae
The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are
alpha waves
When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
The ______ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the _____ ear, which contains auditory ossicles
outer; middle
The _____ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye
Almost 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
vagus nerve
An albino individual lacks the ability to produce
Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure called
The celiac ganglion innervates the
stomach, pancreas, liver
Postganglionic axons usually are
Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except
Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called
collateral ganglia
The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the
auditory ossicles
Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic
chain ganglia
Earwax is produced by
ceruminous glands
Which of the following is true of the vascular tunic of the eye
regulates the amount of light entering the eye, secretes and reabsorbs the aqueous humor, controls the shape of the lens, provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of the eye
The palpebrae
contain tarsal glands, are controlled by cranial nerves, cover and protect the eye, support the lateral rectus muscles of the eye
Changes in the CNS that accompany aging include
decreased blood flow to the brain, reduction in brain size and weight, decrease in the number of neurons
A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a
tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
Which of the following is NOT one of the special senses
Examples of sensory modalities include
smell, vibration, touch, warmth
The suprarenal medullae secrete
epinephrine & norepinephrine
Only about ______ of the info provided by afferent fibers reaches the cerebral cortex and our awareness
The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the
The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
changing shape
A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a
tactile (Merkel) disc
Gustatory receptors are locaed
on the surface of the tongue
The basal nuclei
provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities
Treatment of full-thickness burns includes which of the following
assist tissue repair, increase caloris intake, prevent infection, replace fluids
Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
tympanic membrane
Olfactory glands
coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus
Our perception of our environment is imperfect for all of the following reasons, except that
receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner
The external ear ends at the
tympanic membrane
The gelatinous material that gives the eyeball its base shape is the
vitreous humor
The largest number of taste buds in adults are associated with the
circumvallate papillae
The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
auditory tube
A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is compsoed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a
lamellated corpuscle
Sensible perspiration is produced by
merocrine sweat glands
The layer of skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the
papillary layer
Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex
pupillary reflex, defecation reflex, ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli, vomiting reflex
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribiform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
olfactory bulb
Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity
The auditory ossicles connect the
tympanic membrane to the oval window
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are
sebaceous glands
The two components of the integumentary system are the
cutaneous membrane and accessory structures
Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it
allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is
Vitamin D
A fast-adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a
root hair plexus
The opening in the iris through which light passes is the
Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called
lower motor neurons
are found within the dermis & are free nerve endings
An age-related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called
senile dementia
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by
Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
signals rotational movements
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by a normal stimuli is
The term general senses refers to the sensitivity to all of the following, EXCEPT
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is
The ______ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty
apocrine sweat
Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called
memory consolidation
In general, parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are _______ and postganglionic fibers are _______
myelinated, long; unmyelinated, short
Long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called
tertiary memories
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the
reticular layer
During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs
elevated BP, heart rate, blood glucose and sweating
A child who skins his knee in a fall has an
Which of the following is NOT an effect of ultraviolet radiation
An adult has approximately ______ taste buds
Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places
portions of the larynx, pharynx and surface of the tongue
The type of cells that form the strate (stratum corneum) in the epidermis are
Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations
muscle length, pressure, vibration, touch
The parasympathetic nervous system in especially active during which physiological state
Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called
The nail body covers the
nail bed
Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following
thorcolumbar division
The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the
stratum corneum
Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle
require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
Taste buds are monitored by which of the cranial nerves
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and facial nerve (VII)
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
The mucus that covers the olfactory epithelium does all of the following, EXCEPT that is
dissolves unwanted chemicals and washes them away
The effects of aging on the skin include
a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands
Which of the following is sometimes called "prickling pain"
fast pain
The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the
The layer of dividing cells at the base of the epidermis is the
stratum germinativum
Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT that is
has a clear genetic basis
Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by
nociceptors (pain)
Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function
increased heart rate when you see a person you fear
We can localized sensations that originate in different areas of the body because
sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions
The _____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest"
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord
In the sympathetic nervous system, where are preganglionic neurons located
thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of
olfactory receptors
Which of the following is a function of tear
provide oxygen, wash away debris, lubricate the eye, nourish the cornea and conjunctiva
Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, EXCEPT
dilation of the airways
A fast-adapting mechnoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a
tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation