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Psych 3325 Unit 2 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (96)
The "Jim twins"
are very similar despite being separated at birth
The term________ refers to the complete set of genes an organism possesses.
All human genes are located somewhere on one of _______ pairs of chromosomes.
The human genome contains about _______ separate genes.
The goal of the Human Genome Project is to
identify the particular sequence of DNA molecules in humans
The Human Genome Project has
identified the sequence of DNA molecules in humans
Which of the following is NOT one of the fears about genetic research?
decoding genetic differences will reveal complexities in human nature.
The idea that people with "desirable" characteristics should be encouraged to have children while " less desirable" people should be discouraged from having children is called
Most psychologists who study genetics
are interested in the causes of individual differences
The fact that Americans are, on average, 2 inches taller than a hundred years ago demonstrates that
the environment can contribute to highly heritable traits
If a score for a characteristic is divided into its different causes researchers are typically assessing the ____________ due each of the causes of that score.
Behavioral geneticists are generally NOT interested in the
percentage of genetic variance in an individual
The proportion of phenotypic variation in a group of individuals due to genetic variance is called
_______ refers to the proportion of variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance
_______ refers to observed differences among individuals
_______ refers to individual differences in the collection of genes of each person.
If the heritability of sociability is .30, the environment is responsible for
70% of phenotypic variation
The percentage of variance in a group of individuals that can be attributed to non genetic differences is called
If the heritability of a trait is very large, then the _______ of the trait is small.
Which of the following statements about heritability is NOT true?
heritability can be applied to an individual
Which of the following is NOT a reason why heritability can vary ?
heritability coefficients are fixed in a population
The argument over whether the environment or genes determines personality is known as
the nature-nurture debate
If we were attempting to determine how much of George's personality was due to genetics and how much were due to the environment we would
be asking an impossible question
At the level of the individual
there is no nature-nurture debate
The technical term for dividing a trait's score genetic and environmental variance at the population level is called
Which of the following methods is NOT used with humans?
The use of selective breeding in animals can be used to study
the heritability of behaviors
_______ is shown when successive generations show more and more of a trait
selective breeding in dogs demonstrates that
behavioral traits can be heritable
For selective breeding to be successful, the desired trait mush
A parent shares, on average ______ percent of his or her genes with each child
Aunts and uncles share, on average, _______ percent of their genes with nieces and nephews.
If a trait is highly heritable ,
the more closely family members are genetically related; the more similar they will be on the trait.
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the family-study method?
the fact that parents contribute 50 percent of their genes to each child.
Which of the following methods provides the LEAST conclusive evidence that a trait is heritable?
Which of the following could potentially develop from a single fertilized egg?
_________ are also known as "monozygotic twins"
Which of the following share 100 percent of their genes?
dizygotic twins share _______ genes compared to ordinary siblings, and ______ genes compared to monozygotic twins.
the same amount; less
A trait is likely to be heritable if _______ are more similar in that trait than _______.
monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins
Which of the following estimates heritability most accurately?
twice the difference between the correlations of MZ twins and DZ twins.
One of the most common formulas for assessing heritability is
heritability ^2 = 2( rmz- rdz)
The equal environments assumption states that
dizygotic twins are not treated differently from monozygotic twins.
Which of the following could be a violation of the equal environments assumption?
dressing identical twins in the identical clothes
Mary Jo and Bobbi Jo are identical twins. Their parents dress them alike, put them in the same classes and treat them identically. If Bobbi Jo and Mary Jo were selected to participate in a twin study, they may contaminate the results by leading to a violation of the ______ assumption.
Researchers have studied cases where parents were wrong about whether their twins were identical or fraternal to address
the equal environments assumption
If adopted children differ in important ways from most other people, it would violate the ______ assumption.
If the correlation between adoptive parents' traits and adopted children's traits is high we can assume
an environmental influence
An advantage of adoption studies is that they
do not depend on the equal environments assumption
A trait is heritable if
the biological parents of children they placed for adoption have similar levels of a characteristic
Selective placement is a potential problem with behavior genetics studies as it artificially inflates the
estimates of environmental influences
Jerold was adopted by his mother's sister ( his maternal aunt) and his uncle. If he were to participate in a behavior genetics study his scores would
skew the results to favor the percentage of the variance for his scores to environmental influences
Combining adoption studies and twin studies
provides an especially powerful method for studying behavior genetics
The personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism have been found to be
Most major personality traits
have been found to be moderately heritable
________ traits show moderate in high heritability
Chimpanzees show moderate heritability for dominance and
Which of the following attitudes has been found to be somewhat heritable?
Which of the following is probably most heritable ?
alcoholism in men and women
Research findings from behavioral genetics and brain research point to the possibility that sexual orientation may
be heritable in both women and men
According to recent research ( e.g., the Baily et al. study discussed in the text as support for Bem's 1995 theory), it appears that
childhood gender nonconformity may be the inherited component of adult sexual orientation.
Research on the brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men has found some evidence that homosexual men have
substantially smaller medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus than heterosexual men
Which of the following is an example of a shared environmental influence?
parents' values and attitudes
________ refers to the unique things that happen to one sibling and not another.
Non-shared family environment is best expressed as those aspects of the family environment that
are uniquely experienced by an individual family member.
Shared family environment is BEST expressed by which of the following?
A shared family vacation
The number of books in a child's home is an example of
A yearly family trip to Uncle Earl and Aunt Eunice's farm would be considered part of the ______ environment.
shared common family
Research indicated that shared environmental factors correlate about _______ with personality .
Evidence for the extremely small effects of shared family environment includes the low correlations
between adopted children's personality traits in the same family
One problem with attempting to study the effects of the non- shared environment is that
there are myriad environmental variables that affect personality, but each may have only a small effect
All of these are signifiant shared family environment variables EXCEPT
The idea that individuals with different genotypes respond differently to the same environment cues is called
David, an extravert, and Tom, is an introvert, are studying in a small room with the television's volume is quite loud. Based on what you know about genotype-environment interactions, what can you say about how effectively the two are studying?
Tom will find the television much more distraction than David will
Genotype-environment ________ describes what occurs when people with different genotypes are exposed to different environments
Juanita is a fantastic basketball player. She has great innate ability. She is tall, agile, and has a great head for the game. Her parents take every opportunity to send her to basketball camps and clinics, and make sure she gets extra coaching. Juanita's basketball skills are due to a genotype-environment.
A child shows early musical ability, which causes her parents to buy a piano for her. This scenario demonstrates the idea of genotype-environment
Which of the following is NOT a type of genotype-environment correlation?
Winston, the son of a professional musician, grew up surrounded by may musical instruments in his home. This is an example of a _____ genotype- environment correlation.
Barbara is renowned naturalist. Her parents were both park rangers and she grew up in various national parks. Barbara's prediction to become a naturalist was most likely due to a ______ genotype-environment correlation.
When individuals respond to someone else based on the person's genotype-environment correlation
Alex scores high on the neuroticism scale. He acts extremely anxious much time, which causes other people to constantly try to calm him. The responses Alex elicits from others are an example of a __________ genotype-environment correlation.
When a mother increases the number of times she holds a child because the child loves it so much, we observe a(n) ______ genotype-environment correlation
Sharon scores high on the sensation seeking scale. There is nothing she likes better then to seek out thrills like skydiving or bungee jumping. Sharon seeks out these high-risk behaviors due to a _______ genotype -environment correlation
An extravert who seeks out stimulating environments in which to work demonstrates a(n) ________ genotype- environments correlation
Jerry is extremely extraverted and will monopolize conversations. His girlfriend, Elaine, does a good job of forcing Jerry to let other people get a few words into the conversation. Jerry's incessant talkativeness and Elaine's ability to do something about it is an example of a _____ genotype-environment correlation.
Brian always tries to decide the team's strategy. Over time, the rest of the team works to let everybody have a voice in the team strategy. This is an example of a ________ genotype-
_____ aims to identify specific genes associated with personality traits.
The gene D4DR has been associated with
Individuals with the so called "long repeat" versions of the D4DR gene tend to be relatively unresponsive to the effects of
Most studies linking specific gene to personality
find that gene accounts for a small percentage of variance
The search is for the discovery of specific genes that are responsible for personality traits is called _______ genetics
It is unlikely that a single gene will ever be found that explains more than a _______ percentage of variation in personality
Based on the molecular genetic research done to date, we can speculate that
the genetic components of a personality trait is likely the result of many genes
The idea that personality is determined primarily by socialization and parenting is called
The idea that genes contribute to personality is
more accepted today than it was 10 years ago.
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