Brandenburg Concerto #2 Terms
Terms in this set (43)
A small group of solo instruments (the concertino) plays in opposition to a larger ensemble (the ripieno).
A solo group of instruments within the Baroque concerto grosso.
The larger of the two ensembles in the Baroque concerto grosso. Typically doubles the main orchestral parts or fills in the harmonies and provides the same effect as tutti.
An almost obligatory presence in Baroque ensemble music and referred to the group of instruments that would play the bassline and provide a harmonisation to it.
Whereas in a lot of Baroque music the continuo parts all play from the same line, in the Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, the continuo consists of cello and harpsichord only. The violone is treated as a ripieno instrument and thus often drops out in solo sections.
Typically, this would include a harpsichord or organ (or sometimes both), and other bass instruments such as the cello, the violone, the bassoon and sometimes bass lutes such as
the archlute. While the bowed instruments and the bassoon would just play the bassline, the chordal
instruments would also be expected to add appropriate harmonies that would fit in with the rest of the texture. Often, a figured bassline was given, but where it was not, it was up to the keyboard player to devise a harmonisation that would work.
A short, recurring instrumental passage, particularly in a tutti section.
Found between ritornellos, played by the concertino. These used material that contrasted
with the ritornello (although it sometimes included short snatches of ritornello material) and which was usually more soloistic, giving the players the chance to display their skills.
Modulate / Modulation
Changing the tonal center. In the Brandenburg #2, the episodes usually modulate, while the ritornello statements usually do not. The whole structure thus
sees a journey from the tonic, through several related keys (such as the dominant, relative major or minor and the subdominant) before returning finally to the tonic.
a treble recorder in F. There has been debate over whether the flauto dolce was in fact a flute, the argument being that a recorder would be drowned out by the trumpet. Authentic performances with period instruments have proved that the balance between a recorder and trumpet is satisfactory, however.
Refers to a natural trumpet in the key of F. The technique of playing very high trumpet parts, known as clarino parts, was thriving in Bach's time, but died out later in the 18th century before being revived in the 20th century.
Violino I; Violino II
First and second violins
A type of bass viol that uses a similar register to the present-day double bass
A harpsichord. This would have added filler harmonies, reading from figured bass notation (the
numbers written above its part, for example at bars 107-111).
Indicates that the following music is to be played as it is, without additional harmonization. (found on Cembalo part @ meas. 102)
Violoncello e Cembalo all'unisono
The cello and harpsichord play the bassline in unison (with the harpsichord adding suitable harmonies).
A note sustained in one part (usually the bass) through successive harmonies, some of which are independent of it.
Used occasionally in Brandenburg:
Dominant pedals: bars 70-71 beat 3 (continuo, violin II, viola, trumpet); 92-93 beat 2 (continuo).
Inverted pedals: trumpet bars 3-4 and 31-32
A single note of one chord is held over into another chord.
In Brandenburg, they are another common way of achieving harmonic variety, and they sometimes appear in repetitive sequences (known as chains of suspensions), such as at bars 33-35 in violin I.
A close in music which divides the music into periods or brings it to a full conclusion.
A chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by the tonic chord (V-I or V-i).
Used frequently in Brandenburg #2. There are examples of perfect cadences at the end of each full ritornello statement (eg bar 8), and an imperfect cadence at bar 69 beat 4-bar 70 beat 1.
A broken chord in which the individual notes are sounded one after the other instead of simultaneously.
The position of a chord when the fundamental (or base pitch of a chord) is not the lowest note.
Melodies based off of half steps. (eg bar 72-74, the descending bass line).
Most of the melodic material found in the Brandenburg #2, notes that fall within the key signature / scale.
A 'sighing' motif
Where a note on a strong beat falls by step, is particularly important in the 2nd movement, and is given to the three solo instruments equally, and trills (eg bar 5 beat 1) are also regularly found in the solo parts.
Group of string instruments only found in Movement 3, not present until bar 47.
The melody upon which a fugue is based; a melody, motive, or theme.
A statement of the subject in a different key, 'answering' the subject. Usually followed by some
extra bars of material to
modulate back to the tonic.
An exact transposition of the subject)
An inexact transposition of the subject
Full statements of the subject in the middle of a fugue. They usually coincide with the
establishment of a new key. Found in Movement 3.
Occur towards the end of the fugue, and announce that the music has returned to the tonic
(there may be more than one final entry, eg the three in this movement in the pattern tonic-dominant-tonic).
Where entries of the subject overlap
Subject at half speed
Subject at double speed
The secondary theme of a fugue, heard against the subject. Also called a countertheme.
A chord progression where the dominant chord is the final chord of the cadence and is preceded by the tonic chord in second inversion (6/4-V).
Placing emphasis on a weak beat. In mvt 3, some syncopations are used, for example the tied notes in the ripieno violins in bars 97-102, in the continuo in bars 17-18, in the trumpet in bars 10-11, and in the flute in bars 55-6.
English: spinning-forth, is a German term conceived in 1915 to refer to a specific process of development of a musical motif
Shifting a composition to a different pitch level.
One voice rising in pitch while another voice falls in pitch, moving in opposite directions at the same time.
Circle of 5ths
A method of modulation that begins on a tonic and moves to the dominant of that tonic, which is the fifth tone of the scale. From there the music moves to the dominant of the previous dominant, that is the fifth tone from the fifth tone of the original tonic.
A piece in a minor key that ends (cadence) on a major chord
Counterpoint that involves the use of imitation
A string instrument musical technique involving the alteration of notes between a stagnant (pedal) note on one string and a melody above or below it on the other string.