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chapter 23 pt.2
Terms in this set (50)
if two regions are interconnected, then gases will tend to move to the region of ___________ pressure.
the pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture is called the _______________ _________________.
gas exchange in the respiratory system involve the movement of respiratory gases between what locations
-blood and systemic tissues
-blood and alveoli
total lung capacity is the ___________ _____________ of air that the lungs can hold.
is the study of respiration, the pressure of the outside air measured at sea level is known as the __________ pressure.
place the gases below in order of solubility, most soluble to least soluble.
which are among the four continous and simultaneous processes of respiration?
systemic gas exchange, gas transport, alveolar gas exchange, and pulmonary ventilation.
if the partial pressure of oxygen is higher in the alveoli than in the blood, which phrase describes the net movement of oxygen?
from alveoli to blood.
the collective volume of the alveoli in the lungs is known as the _____ volume.
what is the tidal volume of a typical adult?
Henry's law states that the solubility of a gas is dependent on the partial pressure of the gas and its ___________ ______________.
which factors may make the chest wall or lungs less elastic and therefore increase resistance to airflow?
-vertebral column malformation
-thoracic cage arthritis
a partial pressure _______________ exists when the partial pressure for a specific gas is higher in one region of the respiratory system than another.
the higher the solubility coefficient the ____________ gas dissolves in a liquid.
T/F the volumes measured witha spirometer should be fairly consistent throughout the life of an individual.
"breathing" is more formally known as pulmonary _____________.
which are classified as accessory muscles that asist in active exhalation, as in when you are pushing out extra air from your lungs?
-serratus posterior inferior
the exchange of respiratory gases depends on partial pressure __________________.
the atmospheric pressure at sea level is typically close to which value?
760 mm Hg
which statement describes the net movement of carbon dioxide during internal respiration?
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues to the blood.
during external respiration the PC2 in alveolar capillaries decreases from _____ to ____.
the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume equals the ____ _____.
which statement describes the net movement of oxygen during internal respiration?
Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood.
which events are ocuring during quiet inhalation?
-the lungs are expanding.
-pleural cavity volume is increasing.
-intrapleural pressure is decreasing.
-intrapulmonary pressure is falling.
which statement describes the net movement of oxygen during internal respiration.?
oxygen diffuses from th eblood to the tissues.
which factors will reduce the volume of airflow?
-smaller pressure gradient
-increased resistance to airflow
-increased surface tension in alveoli
which can act as stimuli that will affect breathing rate and depth via reflexes?
-moving joints and muscles
-stretching of bronchiole smooth muscles
regulatory respiratory centers are located within the __________ throguh the medulla oblongata and the pons.
During exercise, when one is breathing deeply and forcibly, the ___________ is activated.
Ventral respiratory group
when the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, during inhalation, the intrapulmonary pressure ____________ and air flows _________________ the lungs.
which conditions can increase airway resistance?
-thoracic cage arthritis.
-decreased elasticity of the chest wall.
when the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, the intrapulmonary pressure increases and __________________ occurs.
during external respiration the PCO2 in alveolar capillaries decreases from _____________ mm Hg to 40 mm Hg
the anatomical features of the respiratory membrane increase the efficiency of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. which features increase efficiency?
-thin squamous cells lining alveoli
-large surface area
-large number of alveoli
________________ is the amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.
which chemical changes can trigger chemoreceptor reflexes?
-changes in blood pH
-changes in Csf pH.
-changes in blood PCO2
which of the following is/are true of central chemoreceptors?
they directly detect changes in pH.
the dorsal respiratory group of the respiratory rhythmicity center controls the ___________ neurons that stimulate the muscles of ______________.
under normal, resting conditions, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide remain ________________.
which of the following option is correctly identified as one of the major respiratory volumes?
-inspiration reserve volume
-expiratory reserve volume.
when you ____________, the inferior portion of the sternum moves anteriorly, slightly increasing the anterior-posterior dimensions of the thorax.
the pressure of a gas decreases if the volume of the container __________.
even though alveolar air is drawn from the atmosphere, the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveolar air are not equal to atmospheric air. which of the following are potential reasons?
-oxygen diffuses out of the atmosphere and into the blood
-incoming air mixes with air in anatomical dead space.
which is a similarity between peripheral and central chemoreceptors?
they both monitor pH changes.
multiplying the atmospheric pressure by the fraction of a gas in the atmosphere yields the _______________ pressure gas.
which are considered part of anatomic dead space?
-secondary and tertiary bronchi
the breathing pattern at rest is known as ___________ breathing.
the ventral respiratory group of the respiratory center controls:
inspiration and expiration.
depression of the ribs _______________ the lateral dimensions of the thoracic cavity.
which events are occurring during quiet exhalation?
-pleural cavity volume is decreasing
-intrapulmonary pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure
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