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Politics Chapter 9 Test
Terms in this set (109)
Aggregation of views shared by a segment of society on issues of interest or concern to people
Choices the govt. makes and the actions it takes in response to a particular issue or problem
Process by which people acquire political beliefs
Any means of communication that provides information to a large audience, including magazines, radio, TV news, and news on the Web
A survey of people scientifically selected to provide opinions about something
Information designed to shape public opinion
Group of people who take part in a poll
Poll's margin of error, or uncertainty level
Errors introduced by polling methods that lead to one outcome over others
Freedom from bias and outside factors that may influence the results of a poll
Survey of a randomly selected fraction of voters after they have voted
Special interest group
Organization of people with common interests that tries to influence the government and its policies
Political Action Committee (PAC)
Organization created to raise and contribute money legally to the campaigns of political candidates
Business group that represents certain industries or parts of industries
Organizations of workers who do the same job or work in related industries
Contracting a public official to persuade the official to support the groups' interests
To publicly declare support for a particular candidate in an election
Lowest level of an organization or society
Organized group that seeks to win elections in order to influence the activities of government
The difference in political views held by different political parties
Process of nominating candidates for elective office
Body of people entitled to vote
System of government in which a single political party controls government
System of govt in which 2 political parties compete for control of the govt.
System of govt. in which several political parties compete for control of the govt.
Any political party in a two-party system besides the 2 major ones
Candidate who is not associated w any political party
Smaller unit of area for administering elections and local voting
Voting district made up of several precincts
-money that is donated to an individual campaign
-there is a limit
-money that is given to a political party rather than to a specific candidate
Political candidates who announce that they are running for office and ask voters to write in their names on the ballot
Meeting of party members who select the candidates to run for election
A primary, or first, election in which the party's candidate for office is chosen directly by voters
Primary election in which voters registered as party members can vote in selecting that party's candidates
Primary elections in which any registered voter may vote in either party's primary election
When a candidate in an election has more voters than any other candidate
A ballot submitted on or before Election Day by a voter who can't be present on Election Day
-civil war between north and south Vietnam
-north was communist (Russia backed them)
-south was non-communist/democracy (backed by U.S.)
Why did America begin to fight in the Vietnam war?
-was a time period of containment for U.S.
-containment: no spread of communism
What was different about the Vietnam War?
-first war the citizens did not support
-strong hatred for this war
-protests against the war
Why did citizens have such hatred for the Vietnam war?
-because of media around the war
-did not like seeing people die on TV
-called the "Living Room War"
When did the U.S. pull out of Vietnam?
Which side won the Vietnam war?
-so Vietnam became communist
What are the 2 views on public opinion?
-single body of people
What is a single body of people concerning public opinion?
-everyone feels the same way
-like how everyone hated the Vietnam war (that was a single body public opinion)
-public officials and leaders
-large groups of people concerned about public issues
What is separate public's concerning public opinion?
-big split groups of people
-not the full nation
-individual groups will affect the overall decision
What are ways that the public expresses their opinion
-protesting, writing letters to the govt leaders, demonstrations, marches, writing blogs
-ex: the walkout, civil rights movement
What 3 things factor together to form one's public opinion
Family, school and work, and personal factors
How does family help form one's public opinion?
-has the most direct influence on views
-influence religious and major political views
-hear parent's views while growing up
-in grade school and early high school kids seem to have the exact same beliefs as their parents
How does school and work help form one's public opinion?
-school is where we formally learn about the govt.
-this is when people become more independent
-peer influences (we hang out w people who have similar views)
-teachers should teach all sides
-at work we learn to respect each other's views
How do personal factors help form one's public opinion?
-one's age, race, gender, and religion shape one's opinion
-events in life affect you
-positive and negative affects
-religion and how devout you are shape beliefs
What are the affects of mass media on politics?
-shapes the public opinion
-will use their polls to report on what the majority of the people believe
-issues that both the general public and the political leaders think are important
-media can "make or break" topics
What are the criticisms of media?
-Reporting: news stations are liberal and conservative, very biased, depends on the source the info is coming from
-story selection: focus on 1 issue and ignore/downplay others; info not always told on news
-factual inaccuracy:news sources may not be factually correct, may not have the best sources; ex: russia telling writers what to and not to write
-media consolidation: one major source has their hands in other places; ex: fox has news and their a newspaper
How to avoid a sampling error?
-try not to be biased
-have to pick random people
What is an exit poll?
-surgery of randomly chosen fraction of voters after they have voted
-how the news figures out who is winning an election
What is an example of a sampling error?
-asking people who are protesting outside of planned parenthood about abortion
-this will be very biased
Interest groups are very important to what group of people?
Important for the minorities
What are 3 things that interest groups give people the chance to do
-give people a way to monitor govt. actions
-express themselves about govt policies
-participate in socialization
What are the 3 things that interest groups themselves do?
-organize people who share concerns
-provide members w means of political participation
-supply info to public and policy makers
What levels of government do interest groups influence?
All levels of government
What does the Political action committee do?
-legally raise money for candidates
-huge in presidential campaigns
How are interest groups linked with expressing public opinion?
-you join interest groups w your same opinions
-both get views across to get changes made
Why have participation in interest groups dropped but donations have increased?
-people used to lose their jobs because on being a part of an interest group, so people just donate
-donating money is the easy way out if you don't want to go to the rallies
How does the mass media influence interest groups?
-social media gets people on a groups side
-social media and the news gets the word out about certain views and things a specific group believes in
What are the functions of interest groups?
Endorsing candidates, lobbying, informing public opinion, lawsuits
How do interest groups endorse candidates?
-help elect candidates that share their views
-give $ to candidate and their campaign
-can be a positive or negative thing for the candidate
How do interest groups lobby?
-contacting a public official to persuade an official to support the interest group
-can contact them in many ways
-get ahold of govt officials and try to persuade him/her to vote their way
How do interest groups inform public opinion?
-have one testify the group's opinion and get support from lawmakers
What do interest groups have to do w lawsuits?
-influence public policy through the legal system
-best way to get the govt to change
What are the different types of interest groups?
-agricultural, business, labor, cause-based, societal, professional
Agricultural interest group
-groups represent farmers, certain types of farms
-may support all farmers or specific farmers
-ex: American Farm Bureau Federation
Business Interest Group
-each for a different type of business
-trade associations: business group that represents certain industries or parts of industries
-trade associations support laws and policies that benefit their industry
-ex: Chamber of Commerce
Labor interest groups
-labor unions: organization of workers who do the same job or work in relates industries
-one of the biggest types of interest groups
Cause-based interest groups
-group that represents/promotes a cause rather than interest of a society
-one particular issue
-ex: mothers against drunk driving
Societal interest groups
-represent religious, social, racial, ethical, and other segments of the population rather than economic/professional interests
-any type of religion or race!!
-ex: AARP (its for the old people)
Professional interest groups
-represent particular profession, establish standards for their profession, influence licensing and training, and educate people about/on a profession
-similar to labor unions
-ex: medical association
How do interests benefit the public good?
-give minority interests a voice in politics (ex: civil rights movement)
-allows EVERYONE to have a voice
What the public's criticisms on interest groups
-have too much power and influence in the govt.
-very single minded
-narrow specific views
-their way or no way
-members of govt. vote certain ways because of the $ interest groups have given them making it hard for laws to be passed
What limits do interest groups have?
-there were laws passed that limit the amount of $ an interest groups can give to a candidate
-support govt. action to make changes (social, political, or economic issues) that are believed to be unfair
-push for a lot of change (movements)
-support limited govt., lower taxes, and traditional social values
-like how it was in "old days"
What are the 3 main roles of political parties
1. Nominations candidates for office
2. Assisting the electoral process
3. Helping to operate the govt.
How do political parties aid the electoral process
-educate people(nation as a whole) about major issues and try to motive people to vote (educate people on what they want you to believe)
-provide a "brand name" for a candidate
-make sure office holders do their job well
-use checks and balances
How are political parties different from interest groups?
-political parties participate in the govt; concerned of all parts of all topics
-interest groups pressure the govt. from the OUTSIDE; only covers 1 topic or 1 part of a topic
What is a one-party System
-single political party control the govt
-other parties may or may not be allowed to operate but have no power
What is a 2-Party system
-2 major parties compete to control the govt.
-may have smaller parties but not as much influence
-several parties compete for control
-common party system
-result in unstable govt. because these is no majority
Today's political parties have roots in which former party?
What is an example of a third-party
Local party organization
-vary state to state
-county committee: selected by party members from precincts in the county
State party organization
-run by central committee, made up of representatives from party's county committee
-chair person to manage daily events
National party organization
-major party header by national committee of members from states parties
-committees for fundraising support campaigns
-each person sponsors affiliated organization at state level
-federal people (president, senators, etc)
What are the benefits of political parties
-filter out extreme/unconscious ideas
-keeps govt. stable
-may allow voters to need to know less about a candidate
-represents a variety of groups
What are the criticisms of political parties
-not keep campaign promises
-more concerned on $ from interest groups than public good
-more interested in personal success
-too many people to accommodate for
-too much influence from interest groups
How is hard money tracked?
-candidates have to file reports w state/federal officials listing how much $ they have received and spent
What is the perk of soft money?
-a way to get around the limits of hard $ contributions
The Self-announcement process
-person must announce that they are running
-have to register as candidate
-have to choose whether to run under a party or as an independent
-there is a registration fee that has to be paid
-local levels have to be nominated by petition
-closed to the public
-caucus:meeting of party members who select the candidates to run for election
-used in few states
-similar to caucuses but open to the public
-direct primary: 1st election where the party's candidate for office is chosen directly by voters
-closed primary:only voters registered as party members can vote
-open primary: only registered voters may vote in either parties primary (full ballot)
Why are voter turnouts low in the U.S.?
-lack of interest
-believe voting will make not difference
-dislike of govt
What are the 3 main requirements to be able to vote?
-must be a U.S. citizen
-at least 18 years old
-resident in the state in which he/she is voting in
4 factors that influence a person's votes
-views on current issues
-voters background and life influences
What is the difference between plurality and majority elections
-plurality is have more votes than any other candidate
-majority is having more than 50% of vote to win
When are federal elections held?
The first tuesday following the first monday in november of every even numbered year
What is the criticism of electronic ballots
-no paper record
-increased change of being hacked
-increased change of inaccurate/unfair results
What are the benefits of campaigns and the public good?
-allow every citizens to express their opinions on how country should run
-can call attention to important issues
-informs you on issues w campaign ads
What are the criticisms of campaigns and the public good?
-too much advertising
-not enough political party
-candidates don't express their viewpoint instead of giving their opinion
-1/3 of americans don't care about govt politics
-info is biased left out
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