What is the body's specific portective response to a foreign agent?
What functions are the body's defense mechanism against invasion and allows a rapid response to foreign substances in a specific manner?
What can result from immune system activation?
genetic and cellular responses
What factors affect the immune system?
CNS integrity, general physical and emotional status, medications, dietary patterns, stress of illness, trauma or surgery
What are two types of dysfunctions involving the immune system?
many genetically based, others acquired
What is a property of the immune system that provides protection against harmful microbes?
What is the mechanism by which the immune system is programmed to eliminate foreign substances, but maintains ability to accept self antigens?
What is the concept of surveillance?
the immune system is in a perpetual state of vigilance, screening, and rejecting any invader that is recogned as foreign to the host
What is immunopathology?
study of diseases that result from dysfunctions within the immune system
Where might disorders from the immune system stem?
excesses or deficiences of immunocompetent cells, alterations in the function of these cells, immunologic attack on self antigens inappropriate or exaggerated responses to specific antigens
Where are the central and peripheral lymphoid organs, tissues and cells? (11 - head to toe)
-adenoids -tonsil -axillary lymph nodes -thymus -bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue -spleen -intestine -Peyer's patches (ascending colon) -Appendix -Inguinal lymph nodes -Bone marrow (B cells and T cells) **They are also scattered throughout your upper abdomen & left clavicular area
What is autoimmunity?
normal protective immune response paradoxically turns against or attacks the body
What does autoimmunity lead to?
What is hypersensitivity?
Body produces exaggerated or inappropriate response to specific antigens
What are gammopathies?
Immunoglobulins are overproduced
What are primary immune deficiencies?
Deficiency results from improper development of immune cells or tissues usually congential or inherited
What are secondary immune deficiencies?
Results from interference with an already developed immune system, usually acquired later in life
What do the different cells tyles of the immune system defend again?
infection and invasion by other organisms
What supports the immune system?
molecules responsible for the interactions, modulations, and regulation of the system
What are immunogenic epitopes?
Immune system molecules interact with immunogenic epitopes and do what?
present on foreign materials
After presenting what do these immune system molecule/epitopes interactions do?
initiate a series of actions in a host
What actions do epitopes initiate?
inflammatory response lysis of microbial agents disposal of foreign toxins
What are the major components of immune system?
central and peripheral organs, tissues and cells
Where are the WBC involved in immunity produced?
Lymphocytes (like other blood cells) are generated from what type of cells?
What are stem cells?
What are the two types of lymphocytes?
B lymphocytes (B cells) T lymphocytes
Which WBC matures in the bone marrow and then enters circulation?
Where do T lymphocytes mature?
thymus (into several kinds of cells)
What red and white pulp organ acts somewhat like a filter?
What is the red pulp a site for?
old and injured RBCs destroyed
What does the white pulp contain?
What connects the lymph nodes?
lymph channels and capillaries
Where are lymph nodes distributed?
throughout the body
What do lymph nodes do?
remove foreign material from the lymph system before it enters the blood stream centers of immune cell proliferation
What is the basic function of the immune system?
remove foreign antigens to maintain homeostasis
What are some exampls of foreign antigens?
viruses and bacteria
What are the two general types of immunity?
natural (innate) acquired (adaptive)
Which type of immunity is present at birth?
Which types develops after birth?
Is natural immunity specific or nonspecific?
What does natural immunity provide?
a broad spectrum of defense against and resistance to infection
Following antigen exposure, what is natural immunity considered?
the first line of defense
Why is natural immunity considered the first line of defense?
protect the host with "remembering" prior contact with an infectious agent
How does the natural immune system co-coordinate the initial response to pathogens?
production of cytokines and other effector molecules
What do cytokines do? (2)
EITHER (1) activate cells for control of the pathogen (by elimination) (2) promote the development of the acquire immune response
What cells are involved in the acquired immune response? (7)