Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 14 Human Physiology - Silverthorn
Terms in this set (70)
Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body. Powered by the heart.
Microscopic vessels where blood exchange material with the interstitial fluid
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Blood vessels that return blood to the heart
A central wall that divides the heart into left and right halves
Each of the two upper cavities of the heart from which blood is passed to the ventricles. Receives blood returning to the heart from blood vessels, and the ventricle pumps blood out into the blood vessels.
A hollow part or cavity in an organ, in particular:
- Each of the two main chambers of the heart, left and right.
The artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.
A vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Blood vessels that go from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium are known collectively as this.
Large artery where blood pumped out of the left ventricle enters
Superior vena cava
A large vein that receives blood from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thorax and delivers it to the right atrium of the heart. Takes into account the veins from the upper part of the body
Inferior vena cava
The largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart
Blood vessels that carry blood from the left side of the heart to the tissues and back to the right side of the heart are known collectively as this.
A physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure increases the most rapidly around a particular location.
The pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. For example, if a fluid is not moving, then the pressure exerted is this.
Pressure created in the ventricles
Tendency of the cardiovascular system to resist blood flow
Thickness of a particular fluid
A physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
A decrease in blood vessel diameter
An increase in blood vessel diameter
The volume of blood that passes a given point in the system per unit time.
Velocity of flow
The distance a fixed volume of blood travels in a given period of time.
A tough membraneous sac that encases the heart
Cardiac muscle in which the heart is composed of
One of the veins of the heart that drain blood from the capillary beds of the myocardium through the coronary sinus into the right atrium.
Blood vessels that provide oxygen-rich blood and other nutrients to the heart muscle.
Between the atria and ventricles; a valve in the heart through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles. The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle is the mitral (bicuspid) valve; the right AV valve is the tricuspid valve.
Between the ventricles and the arteries; each of a pair of valves in the heart, at the bases of the aorta and the pulmonary artery, consisting of three cusps or flaps that prevent the flow of blood back into the heart.
Cord-like tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the bicuspid valve in the heart.
Moundlike extensions of ventricular muscle in which opposite ends of the chord are tethered.
The valve that separates the right atrium and right ventricle and has three flaps.
The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Another term for the bicuspid valve due to its resemblance to the tall headdress known as a miter which is worn during religious functions.
Between the left ventricle and the aorta;a valve in the human heart that s one of the two semilunar valves of the heart, the other being the pulmonary valve.
Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk; the semilunar valve of the heart that has three cusps which snap close when blood that is attempting to flow back into the ventricle fills the cusps.
Specialized myocardial cell in which the signal for myocardial contraction comes from.
Auto-rhythmic cells are these because they set the rate of the heartbeat.
Cell junctions that consist of interdigitated membranes
Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR)
Process of EC coupling in cardiac muscle due to myocardial RyR channels opening in response to Ca2+ binding.
The slow, positive increase in voltage across the cell's membrane (the membrane potential) that occurs between the end of one action potential and the beginning of the next action potential.
Sinoatrial node (SA node)
A small body of specialized muscle tissue in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker by producing a contractile signal at regular intervals.
Atrioventricular node (AV node)
Controls the heart rate, and is one of the major elements in the cardiac conduction system. The AV node serves as an electrical relay station, slowing the electrical current sent by the sinoatrial (SA) node before the signal is permitted to pass down through to the ventricles.
A unique cardiac end-organ, or specialized cells that transmit electrical signals very rapidly down the atrioventricular bundle (AV)
Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
A bundle of specialized muscle fibers regulating the heartbeat by conducting impulses from the right atrium to the ventricles.
Offshoots of the bundle of His in the heart's ventricle. They play an integral role in the electrical conduction system of the heart by transmitting cardiac action potentials from the bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers.
AV node delay
Ensures that the atria have ejected their blood into the ventricles first before the ventricles contract.
A record or display of a person's heartbeat produced by electrocardiography.
A name for the combination of three of the graphical deflections seen on a typical electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG). It is usually the central and most visually obvious part of the tracing. It corresponds to the depolarization of the right and left ventricles of the human heart.
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
First heart sound (S1)
The "lub" of the "lub-dub" heartbeat
Isovolumic ventricular contraction
An event occurring in early systole during which the ventricles contract with no corresponding volume change (isovolumetrically). This short-lasting portion of the cardiac cycle takes place whilst all heart valves are closed.
Second heart sound (S2)
The "dub" of the "lub-dub" heartbeat
The action of listening to sounds from the heart, lungs, or other organs, typically with a stethoscope, as a part of medical diagnosis.
End-systolic volume (ESV)
The volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction, or systole, and the beginning of filling, or diastole. ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the cardiac cycle.
The volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
Cardiac output (CO)
The amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute
The inherent strength and vigor of the heart's contraction during systole.
The degree of myocardial stretch before a contraction begins
Frank-Starling law of the heart
States that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume) when all other factors remain constant.
The rate of blood flow back to the heart. It normally limits cardiac output.
Skeletal muscle pump
A collection of skeletal muscles that aid the heart in the circulation of blood. It is especially important in increasing venous return to the heart, but may also play a role in arterial blood flow.
Influences venous return to the heart.
An agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
A protein that in humans is encoded by the PLN gene.
The combined load of EDV and arterial resistance during ventricular contraction
Refers to how well your left ventricle (or right ventricle) pumps blood with each heart beat.
The sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 12 Human Physiology - Silverthorn
Chapter 13- Human Physiology - Silverthorn
Chapter 11 Human Physiology - Silverthorn
nervous system mrs spears anatomy & physiology
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Anatomy Test 3/28/17
The Cardiovascular System
Ch. 15 Cardiovascular System
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 10 Human Physiology - Silverthorn
Chapter 9 Human Physiology - Silverthorn
Ch. 8 Human Physiology - Silverthorn