46 terms

Psychology Unit 3: PEOPLE (and some theories)

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Spearman's Two-Factor Theory
Humans have one general intelligence (g), which functions as the heart of everything they do. They also have special abilities (s), but these correlate with general abilities (g).
Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities
Conducted fifty-six different tests that mathematically identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities and provides some evidence of g.
Word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial visualization, number facility, associative memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed
Cattel and Horn
Defined crystallized and fluid intelligence
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Believed there is no g factor for intelligence, meaning that if you are high in one area, you don't need to be high in another.
Musical, Body-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Verbal-linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Naturalistic, Intrapersonal, Visual-spatial
Sternberg's Three Intelligences (Triarchic Theory)
Prominent psychologist who scored low on I.Q. tests and, despite his teachers having low expectations for him (excluding his fourth-grade teacher), he excelled in school and graduated from Harvard
Analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Ericcson's Work on Experts
Expert performers spend about a decade on practice, which includes motivation and devotion
Salovey's Four Factors of Emotional Intelligence
Perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions; correlates with well-being
Francis Galton
Attempted to assess intellectual intelligence in 1884 and found no correlation between measures; provided statistical techniques such as normal distribution and persisted in the belief of inheritance of genius
Alfred Binet
Measured each child's mental age; assumed that all children follow the same course but not rate of intellectual development; believed in environmental explanations of intelligence differences
Simon and Binet
Developed our traditional understanding of I.Q. (mental age) to see if they could predict how well children perform in school
Lewis Terman
Revised Binet's I.Q. test by extending the upper end of the test's range and renaming the test the Stanford-Binet; theorized intelligence tests reveal the intelligence a person is born with
David Wechsler
Created the most widely used intelligence test that provides clues to strengths and weaknesses; called the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Deary
Intelligent people live longer and are more likely to have healthier lifestyles
Terman Study
Studied students with IQs over 140 and tracked them throughout life; high scoring children tended to be healthier, taller, well-adjusted, had good leadership abilities, and were unusually successful academically
Claude Steele
Self-fulfilling Stereotype Threat, a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Four Perspectives to Understanding Motivated Behaviors
Instinct theory, drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, and Maslow's heiarchy of needs
Darwin
Classified many behaviors as instincts
Instinct
Fixed, unlearned pattern throughout species; genes predispose some species-typical behavior
Drive-Reduction Theory
Created in 1933 by Clark Hole; suggests physiological need creates an aroused tension-state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy a need (need to drive to drive-reducing behavior)
Yerkes-Dodson Law
The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Determined that, in order to reach one's optimal performance level, a person must enter flow
Maslow
Psychologist who viewed human motives as a pyramid (base was physiological needs such as hunger and the peak was the self-transcendence needs such as meaning and identity)
PS LovE You
Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love and belongingness needs, Esteem needs, Self-actualization needs, and self-transcendence needs
Washburn
Showed that stomach contractions accompany our feeling of hunger by swallowing a balloon and pressing a key each time he feels hungry
Unit Bias- Self-Refilling Bowls
Tested college students by offering unlimited soup, either through a waiter or through a hidden device that constantly refilled their bowl; result was the second group stimating that they did not eat a ton of food, despite their portion size almost doubling
Masters and Johnson
Conducted study in 1950s and 1960s with willing participants that developed the Sexual Response Cycle
Cindy Meston
Studies sexual psychophysiology lab at UT, Austin; considers victims of trauma and sexual abuse, body image and self-esteem, and religion
American Psychological Association
Classify people as disordered if they experience distress from unusual sexual interest or it entails harm or risk of harm to others
Simon Legay
The first to document differences in brain structure regarding sexual orientation; hypothalamus participates in regulating sexual activity, primarily in men
James-Lange Theory:
Arousal comes before emotion
James
Known as the father of American psychology, known for setting up first psychology lab and studying emotions
Cannon-Bard Theory
Arousal and emotion happen at the same time; emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory
Conducted experiment in 1962 that should emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
Zajonc and LeDoux
Two-track brain; some emotional responses go from the thalamus to the brain's cortext to the amygdala (an emotion control center) while other emotions take a "low road" and go straight from the thalamus to the amygdala.
Lazarus
Two-track brain; brain processes information without conscious awareness but while mentally functioning; stressor leads to primary appraisal
William James
Determined that, by changing physical posture, you can alter your emotions
Carroll Izard
Isolated ten basic emotions most present in infancy
Carroll Izard 10 Basic Emotions
Joy
Sadness
Anger
Disgust
Contempt
Fear
Shame
Guilt
Surprise
Interest-excitement
When Basic Emotions Appear
Typically appear before six-months old
Embarrassment and Shame
Typically develop around eighteen-months
Chomsky
All language share basic elements called universal grammar
Pre-Frontal Cortex
Dampens feelings of physical pain when activated (can be activated by looking at pictures of loved ones)
Whorf's Linguistic Determinism Hypothesis
Language determines basic ideas; words influence but do not determine thinking
Freddie Hall
Had multiple IQ scores ranging from 60-80
Dweck
Growth mind set
Emotion
Physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and cognitive experience
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