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Ch. 4 & 26
Terms in this set (62)
study of interactions between organisms and their environment
all organisms and nonliving entities that occur and interact in a particular area at the same time; composed of biotic & abiotic factors
organisms physical place in the environment
the functional role of a species in a community, includes adaptations, specializations, tolerances
the full niche of a species
the portion of the fundamental niche that is fully used by a species
principle that no two species can occupy the same niche indefinitely
inhibition of seed germination or early seedling growth caused by chemical secretions from another plant
progression of organisms that feed on/decompose the preceding one
collection of multiple-food chains
an organism that manufactures food through photosynthesis
organisms that cannot synthesize their food but most feed on other organisms
an animal that eats plants
an organism that feeds on both plants and animals
an organism that feeds on both plants and animals
organism that obtains its nutrition by breaking down dead plants and animals or their waste products
a step in the movement of energy through an ecosystem; a step in a food chain
the capacity to do work
energy of motion
the study of how energy is transferred, as well as the rates of flow and transformation
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed; the total amount of energy and matter in the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to another
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
with each energy conversion, the amount of usable energy decreases, while the amount of unusable energy increases
large, complex, high-energy, carbon-based molecules; found in tissues of living or dead organism
small, simple, low-energy molecules or single atoms/ions; can be found in the atmosphere, water & soil
the process that results in the conversion of light energy into the chemical energy of carbohydrates
a unit of light energy
the distance between one peak or crest of a wave of light, heat, or other energy and the next corresponding peak or crest
chemical that absorbs certain wavelengths of light
a light-absorbing pigment in the chloroplasts that plays a central role in converting solar energy into chemical energy
plant pigments that include carotenes and xanthophylls; most are yellow, orange, or red
first steps in photosythesis, in which chlorophyll traps solar energy, resulting in the formation of ATP and NADPH
Light-independent reaction (AKA Calvin Cycle)
biochemical pathway in photosynthesis in which carbon (from CO2) is used in the production of carbohydrates
composed of pigment molecules & proteins; each photosystem responds to a different wavelength of light
the energy compound of the cell
a molecule that acts as an electron intermediate during photosynthesis
the aerobic production of energy from food molecules; the breakdown of organic molecules, such as glucose, for the production of ATP; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
the multi-step chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid.
Citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle)
the metabolic cycle fueled by acetyl CoA formed after glycolysis in cellular respiration. Chemical reactions in the citric acid cycle complete the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide. The cycle occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and supplies most of the NADH molecules that carry energy to the electron transport chains. The second major stage of cellular respiration.
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.
anaerobic cellular respiration; organic compounds are broken down to release energy without the use of oxygen as an electron acceptor; products of fermentation include ethanol and lactic acid
the loss of water vapor from leaves; occurs mostly through the stomata
a minute opening, boarded by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems
a pair of specialized cells in the epidermis that regulates the opening and closing of the stoma
attraction between unlike molecules
tendency of like molecules to stick together, usually due to hydrogen bonds
the theory that explains water movement in the xylem; the driving forces are the pull of transpiration and the cohesion of the water molecules
the transport of dissolved material within a plant
origin point of nutrients
destination of nutrients
the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
an ecological succession that occurs on land that has not previously been inhabited by plants; no soil is present initially
an ecological succession that takes place after some disturbance destroys the existing vegetation; soil is already present.
a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by a similar climate, soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs on Earth; a biome encompasses many interacting ecosystems.
the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms
improving the appearance of an area of land by changing the design and planting trees, flowers, etc
a style of landscape design requiring little or no irrigation or other maintenance, used in arid regions
degradation of once-fertile range-land, agricultural land, or tropical dry forest into nonproductive desert. Caused partly by soil erosion, deforestation, and overgrazing.
precipitation that is acidic as a result of both sulfur and nitrogen oxides forming acids when they react with water in the atmosphere.
various chemicals (gases, liquids, solids) present in high enough levels in the atmosphere to harm humans, other animals, plants, or materials.
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