AP European History - Industrial Revolution
Terms in this set (47)
A conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market.
It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire in England. The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once.
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
A breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump; the early models were superseded by James Watt's more efficient steam engine, patented in 1769.
a locomotive engine designed by George Stephenson and his son; ran the Liverpoon-Manchester Railway at more than 24 miles per hour
Building erected in London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age.
iron law of wages
proposed principle of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.
A government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products.
Policy a nation uses to improve its economic well being by establishing protective tariffs and similar restrictions on the import and export of goods.
A belief that one is a member of an economic group whose interests are opposed to people in other such groups
Any of a group of British workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed laborsaving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
Factory Act of 1833
An act that limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen years of age to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen years of age to twelve hours.
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics
Mines Act of 1842
English law prohibiting underground work for all women and girls as well as for boys under ten.
These were the laws passed by the Parliament that prohibited the English people from forming a union
A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Bank of England
The central bank for the UK. Its role is to monitor the banking system and to be a banker to the banks. It is responsible for setting interest rates in the UK.
Acts passed in 1660 passed by British parliament to increase colonial dependence on Great Britain for trade; limited goods that were exported to colonies; caused great resentment in American colonies.
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. It was then applied to machinery.
a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles
the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines
This invention allowed impurities to be removed from iron ore and production to speed up 15x.
A period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation.
Robert Fulton, steamboat
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
The name of the free trade zone that German states created in the early 19th century, decades prior to their unification.
lower middle class (shopkeepers and clerical staff etc.)
emerged to provide work to those who were unemployed, conditions were often oppressive
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
Reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of Parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. This group supported a document called the People's Charter.
investigated working conditions helped initiate legislation to improve conditions in factories.
City in England; one of the leading industrial areas; example of an Industrial Revolution City; first major rail line linked Manchester to Liverpool in 1830.
In 1815 he successfully invented a locomotive engine, which revolutionized rail transport.
British inventor of the water frame (1769), which helped revolutionize textile production.
The Putting-Out System
When textile workers performed tasks at home. Vendors left raw material and picked up the finished product. This was replaced by the factory system.
The process of producing a large number of items quickly using an assembly line. Numerous identical items could be quickly and cheaply produced. Modern factory systems of production developed in the mid-19th century as a result.
Scot who invented the steam engine n 1869.
In 19th century Britain, some workers, accurately predicting that the factory system would replace them, joined forces and attacked factories and destroyed machines. Their movement lasted from 1811-1.
Second Industrial Revolution
This term refers to the second wave of the late 18th century industrial movement which was generally focused in the United States and Germany. This second wave, with the movement from domestic systems of production to factory systmes, involved heavy industry and innovations such as mass production.
An English maker of pottery and china, he developed the pyrometer (measures temperature in kilns) and was able to produce inexpensive china. He is also noted for introducing mechanization to the porcelain industry.
The term introduced in the early 19th century for those who worked in the new factories of the Industrial Revolution. The factory system, in which laborers worked together under close supervision, enabled members of this new socioeconomic class to develop a sense of common interest and identity.
factors that industrialized Britain first
access to coal, intellectual atmosphere, enlightened political and economic climate and consumer revolution
British laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist business people over skilled artisans; repealed by Parliament in 1824
German proponent of government support for industrialization
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