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60 terms

Biology Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration

Pearsons
STUDY
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Cellular respiration requires fuel (glucose) and oxygen gas. The main process that produces these inputs is _____.
photosynthesis
Which part(s) of cellular respiration require(s) oxygen gas?
the Citric Acid cycle and the electron transport chain
What is/are the most important output(s) of glycolysis?
two pyruvic acid and two NADH molecules
Unlike the Citric Acid cycle and electron transport, glycolysis occurs _____.
in the cytoplasm
Glycolysis is the multi-step breakdown of _____. Several different _____ play a role in this process.
glucose ... enzymes
Which part(s) of cellular respiration take(s) place in the mitochondria?
the Citric Acid cycle and the electron transport chain
What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration?
Oxygen accepts high-energy electrons after they are stripped from glucose.
Cellular respiration accomplishes two major processes: (1) it breaks glucose down into smaller molecules, and (2) it harvests the chemical energy released and stores it in ATP molecules. By the end of _____, the breakdown of glucose is complete; most ATP molecules are produced during _____.
the Citric Acid cycle ... electron transport
NADH and FADH 2 are important in cellular respiration because they deliver high-energy electrons to the electron transport system. Electron transport produces _____ ATP molecule(s) per NADH molecule and _____ ATP molecules(s) per FADH 2 molecule
three ... two
In electron transport, high-energy electrons "fall" to oxygen through a series of reactions. The energy released is used to _____.
transport protons into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria, where they become concentrated. They then flow back out into the the inner compartment (matrix) of the mitochodria. On the way back, protons turn ATP synthase turbines and produce ATP.
Primarily, cellular respiration serves to _____.
make ATP to power the cell's activities
The electron transport chain is a series of electron carrier molecules. In eukaryotes, where can this structure be found?
mitochondria
The electron transport chain is, in essence, a series of redox reactions that conclude cellular respiration. During these redox reactions, _____.
NAD+ is reduced, which then oxidizes an electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
Cellular respiration completely breaks down a glucose molecule through glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. However, these two processes yield only a few ATPs. The majority of the energy the cell derives from glucose is _____.
found in NADH and FADH2
Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.
glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
glycolysis
In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
mitochondrion
Which statement describes glycolysis?
This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
Which statement describes the electron transport chain?
This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?
They produce ATP.
Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?
energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?
Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step
The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
Humans use the calories they obtain from ________ as their source of energy.
food
A molecule that functions as the electron donor in a redox reaction _____.
loses electrons and loses energy
During redox reactions,
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________.
loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons
During cellular respiration, NADH
delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule
Oxidative phosphorylation could not occur without glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, because _____.
these two stages supply the electrons needed for the electron transport chain
Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?
glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
Glycolysis is the only stage of cellular respiration that _____.
requires ATP to make ATP
As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs.
2
How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis?
2
Pyruvate
forms at the end of glycolysis
Which step of the citric acid cycle requires both NAD+ and ADP as reactants?
step 3
At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in
NADH.
In oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are passed from one electron carrier to another. The energy released is used to _____.
pump protons (H+) across the mitochondrial membrane
By-products of cellular respiration include
carbon dioxide and water.
In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is
an oxygen atom
Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized?
aerobic respiration
Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that
the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.
In yeast cells,
alcohol is produced after glycolysis.
The function of cellular respiration is to _____.
extract usable energy from glucose
Where does glycolysis occur in a eukaryotic cell?
in the cytoplasmic fluid
Where do the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotic cells?
the mitochondrion
A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis _____.
by the transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs?
A compound called coenzyme A binds to a two-carbon fragment.
Most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from _____.
the citric acid cycle
The energy production per glucose molecule through the citric acid cycle is _____.
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
What happens to the energy that is given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain?
It pumps H+ through a membrane.
The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from _____.
the flow of H+ through a membrane
The enzyme ATP synthase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the energy needed for this endergonic reaction is derived from
the movement of hydrogen ions across the mitochondrial membrane
Where does most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration come from?
chemiosmosis
Through respiration, humans breathe in O2 and breathe out CO2. However, what would happen if we did not breathe in O2?
We would not make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements
In the equation shown below, during cellular respiration _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced.
glucose ... oxygen
Substrate-level phosphorylation directly generates ATP during a chemical reaction. As a single molecule of glucose is completely oxidized, in the presence of oxygen, how many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation?
4 ATP
During glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is partially oxidized. What is the net gain of ATP and NADH for each glucose molecule?
2 ATP and 2 NADH