What does one call the arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea?
the Fertile Crescent
What are 7 characteristics of civilization?
2) Written language
5) Specialized jobs
6) Social classes
7) Unique art styles and architecture
What were the 4 major river valley civilizations that emerged between 3500 and 500 B.C.?
1) Mesopotamian civilization
2) Egyptian civilization
3) Indian civilization
4) Chinese civlization
Where did the Mesopotamian civilization develop?
Between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia
Where did the Hebrew people settle?
Between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley in the Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia
Where did the Phoenicians settle?
Along the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley in the Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia
Where was ancient Nubia located?
On the upper part of the Nile River, which is the southern part of the Nile River
A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians in 3000 B.C.
What did the ancient Sumerians use as writing materials?
Wet clay and a stylus with a wedge-shaped edge
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
After Egyptians developed a simplified version of hieroglyphic writing for day-to-day use, what did they begin to use as writing materials?
Used a brush and ink to write on papyrus
How did the Egyptians make papyrus?
By softening reeds, laying them out in a crossed pattern, mashing them into pulp, and then laying them out to dry in thin sheets
How did the Phoenician system of writing differ from the Sumerian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics?
It was totally phonetic; one sign was used for one sound
Define cultural diffusion.
The spread of one culture's ideas, products, traditions, beliefs to another people
Why is the Gilgamesh Epic important?
1) One of the earliest works of literature
2) Contains a "flood story" that predates the Old Testament story of Noah
Name four inventions of the Sumerian city-states.
1) Cuneiform writing
2) The wheel
3) The sail
4) The plow
What are three ways modern western society (European and American) has adapted the Sumerian number system?
60 seconds = 1 minute
60 minutes = 1 hour
360 degrees in a circle
What did Sargon do?
1) Conquered the city-states of Sumer
2) Created the world's first empire by uniting all of Mesopotamia under his rule
What is an empire?
A type of government in which one ruler controls a number of different peoples or previously independent countries
What was the Babylonian Empire's most important contribution to civilization?
1) The Code of Hammurabi
2) A collection of laws that applied to everyone living in the Babylonian Empire
What did Hammurabi believe would be two benefits of his code of laws?
1) Would unify the diverse (different) groups in his empire
2) Would keep control over the people he had conquered
How were the people of the Babylonian Empire made aware of the Code of Hammurabi?
It was engraved on steles, which were place throughout the empire.
What was the historical significance of the Hittites' knowledge of iron technology?
It allowed the Hittites to dominate Southwest Asia, including much of Mesopotamia for 450 years.
What occupations were important to the success of the Phoenician economy?
For what product were the Phoenician city-states of Tyre and Sidon well known in the ancient world?
Over what product did the Phoenician city-states have a virtual trading monopoly (absence of competition)?