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General Psychology (Human Development) Cht 8
Terms in this set (53)
Marissa is an adolescent who is trying to "find herself." Her parents are shocked when she announces she wants a tattoo and shows up to the breakfast table with purple hair. According to Erikson, Marissa is in the stage of identity vs. identity/role _________.
Ian is a nineteen-year-old who is asking questions like "who am I"?"what do I want to do with my life"? Ian is most likely
in Erikson's stage of identity vs. identity confusion
Who are you? This question pertains to which of the following theories?
Marcia's theory of exploration and commitment
Ramon is a freshman in college. He doesn't know what his major will be and he has few ideas of what he wants to do in life. According to Erikson, he is in which of the following stages of development?
Identity vs. Identity confusion
Which of the following are true of Erikson's stage of identity vs. identity confusion?
It occurs from 10-20 years of age.
Career exploration is important.
There is an exploration of roles.
Which of the following statements are true regarding Piaget's theory of schemas?
Schemas are expressed as various behaviors and skills.
A schema assists us in making sense of experience.
A schema organizes information.
Arrange Erikson's first four childhood stages of socioemotional development in the correct order.
1. Trust vs. mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3. Initiative vs. guilt
4. Industry vs. inferiority
Which of Erikson's stages occurs in infancy and involves feeling a sense of assurance towards one's caregiver?
Trust vs. mistrust
Which of Erikson's stages occurs in childhood and involves asserting independence for the first time?
Six year old Melanie is an enthusiastic child looking forward to first grade. According to Erikson's socioemotional developmental theory, she is in the _________ vs. _________ stage of development.
Industry versus inferiority
According to Baumrind, authoritative parents:
are firm, set clear limits, and reason with their children to explain things to them
Lucy is two years old and is most likely in Erikson's socioemotional developmental stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt. Which of the following statements are true regarding Lucy in this stage of development?
Lucy will begin to assert her independence.
Lucy is discovering that she has a will of her own.
According to Piaget, a _________ is a concept or framework that exists in a person's mind and that organizes information and provides a framework for interpreting the information.
According to Piaget, in the sensorimotor stage, the infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordination _________ experience with _________ actions.
Mary, a one-and-a-hald-year-old, sees a stuffed dog being covered by a blanket. According to Piaget's theory, if she removes the blanket in order to find the stuffed dog, she has
accomplished object permanence
Piaget's term for the crucial accomplishment of the sensorimotor stage, where a child understands that something exists even if it cannot be seen, is _________.
Elliott is a two-year-old toddler. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, this means that he is in the preoperational stage. Which of the following is true of this stage?
Children have difficulty in this stage understanding the concept of reversible operations.
A child's thinking in this stage is limited because it is egocentric.
According to Piaget, _________ is a belief that objects continue to possess physical attributes (such as volume) despite superficial changes.
Which of the following examples describes "egocentric thought" in Piaget's preoperational stage?
Kaylee is reading a picture book and assumes that her mother who is across the room can see the pictures.
Allison is in Piaget's preoperational stage of development. She is asked to explain how she knows something. She's says, "I just know." This is an example of what Piaget referred to as _________.
Which of the following is typical of the concrete operational stage, according to Piaget?
It involves logical reasoning.
Abstract thinking is not yet developed.
Madeleine is 16 years old. She is able to think somewhat like a scientist, devising plans to solve problems and testing solutions. Which of Piaget's stages in Madeleine most likely in?
Which of the following are true in regard to Vygotsky's theory of development?
1.The goal of cognitive development is to become competent in your culture.
2.There is an emphasis on collaborative learning.
3.Learning occurs through interaction with skilled others.
_________ egocentrism involves the belief that others are as preoccupied with the adolescents as he or she is.
According to Piaget, the _________ _________ level of reasoning is reached when someone has the ability to use hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
You show a child a toy and then hide that toy behind a chair, and when the child wants the toy, he or she only looks in plain sight, not behind the chair. According to Piaget, the child could be said to lack a mastery of _________.
According to Piaget, during which age range does the preoperational stage occur?
2 to 7 years
Steven, a toddler, is reading a book and sees a picture he is interested in. '"look, mommy," he shouts, "a horse." He does not show the picture to his mother but assumes that she is able to see it as he sees it. This exemplifies which of the following of Piaget's concepts?
Which of Piaget's stages occurs from ages 7-12 and is characterized by logical thought, reversibility and the loss of egocentrism?
What is the primary focus of Vygotsky's theory of development?
Many adolescent and adults do not reason as logically as Piaget proposed in which of his stages of development?
_________ refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capability that occurs throughout the course of life.
Which of the following is the best example of "nature" in the context of the nature-nurture influence?
Which of the following examples represent "nurture" influences?
Nutrition in early childhood
A person's _________ gives her the potential to be tall, but this potential interacts with the environment and may result in a number of phenotypic representations.
Which of the following statements apply to a person's role in his or her own development?
It is an interactive role
It is an active role
What are the three domains of development?
Physical, cognitive, and socioemotional
Infancy is the developmental period
from birth until 2 years of age
A person is born with some serious physical problems, but perseveres throughout development and actually chooses environmental reinforcers that allow the individual to construct a unique developmental path. Which of the following best describes this process?
This person demonstrates the active and interactive role of genetic inheritance and the environment.
_________ is a basic, innate emotional disposition that emerges very early in life and affects behavior throughout childhood.
Some developmental psychology researchers use the term infant _________ to describe the initial important connection to a caregiver that provides a foundation for later development.
Rank the prenatal developmental stages in the correct order.
The germinal period
The embryonic period
The fetal period
Which of the following are examples of teratogens?
Dr. Salzano is showing infants pictures of their parents and of strangers. He wants to know if the babies will consistently look at their parents, versus looking at the two pictures equally. Dr. Salzano is using the _________ technique.
Which of the following changes are typical of puberty?
Rapid skeletal growth
Changes in the brain
Many physical changes are occurring during early addulthood. (select all of the following that apply)
Physical skills begin to decline
Downward trend in strength
Hearing loss is very common with age
At around what age is the human body at its physical peak?
A female who has stopped menstruating and is no longer fertile has gone through what process?
When a function is specialized in one or the other hemisphere of the brain, this is know as _________.
Alcohol, viruses, and nicotine are all categorized as _________ because they can cause birth defects when a fetus is exposed to them.
_________ is the period of physical development during which sexual organs mature.
The transition period between adolescence and adulthood is considered to be the emerging _________.
Jaden's parents have very strict rules for him, and do not give reasons for those rules other than " We're your parents, so you need to do what we say." His parents are using a(n) _________ parenting style.
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