APUSH VOCAB 6-8
Terms in this set (93)
samuel de champlain
"Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec (first french settlement in north america) in 1608.
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British (england) in 1763 after the seven years war.
French Protestants (calvinists). The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
coureurs des bois
French-Canadian fur trappers; literally, "runners of the woods."
robert de la salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico, claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
treaty of utrecht
1713, ended Queen Ann's War, transferred large areas of French territory in North America to English including Nova Scotia and Newfoundland.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies - led to the colonists strengthening their own government, leading to their future independence.
French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
A hastily built British fort in the ohio valley where Washington attempted to defeat the French. However, the French took the fort and forced Washington to surrender.
french and indian war
also called seven years war, was fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse. british win, but costs a lot of money, begin to tax colonists.
English secretary of state who brought war effort under British control; forced colonists to enlist, and seized supplies from colonists, but later relaxed these policies to ease tension. Pittsburgh.
Objective was to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to Britian, benjamin franklin, gave them gifts, including guns.
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers ( Fort Duquesne), known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
(def.) Trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts (sig.) The barely-trained colonists defeated the British regulars at Great Bridge, showing they could defeat the British.
battle of quebec
turning point of french and indian war when Quebec surrendered to the French in 1759, British general Wolfe snuck his troops up to Quebec, where there was a huge battle. Both wolfe and ther French general died, but the British won, and North America was then rid of major French rule.
peace of paris
1763, this ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.
French settlers who would not pledge their loyalties to the British and were driven from their homes; cajuns of Louisiana are descendants of these people, displaced by the Great Displacement to Louisiana, nova scotia.
1763 Conflict between the Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great lakes area, indians angered because of british land expansion and taxes, led by Otowah chief Pontiac.
proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east, king george III, attempted to solve problems with indians.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed - people are expected to be self-less and put the common good above their desires.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought - employed on the colonists by britain
navigation law of 1650
aimed at Dutch trying to get a niche in the colonist market, required that all goods going to/from colonies had to be in British vessels; subsequent laws required Britain to receive tariffs on all goods bound for America, and required American producers to ship some goods exclusively to Britain
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free market economics, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence, wealthy, king of smugglers.
importing or exporting goods in violation of trade laws, many colonists did this when britain enforced the navigation laws
American silversmith who became a hero after his famous ride to warn of the British advance on Lexington and Concord, "the british are coming" - also drew boston massacure propaganga picture
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act to get colonists to pay for the war, and argued that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
a law passed by Parliament in 1764 that placed tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies; also called for harsh punishment of smugglers
taxes on imported goods
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents - first direct tax
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials were heard by judges without a jury.
The British argument that the American colonies were represented in Parliament, since the members of Parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire, "no taxation without representation"
a system of choosing delegates to a representative assembly in which citizens vote directly for the delegates who will represent them, colonists did not have this, "no taxation without representation"
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, he opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
stamp act congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
An act signed by 200 merchants pledging not to buy any British goods until Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, colonial merchants and planters signed these agreements to promise to stop importing goods taxed by the Townshend acts - organized by Sons of Liberty and Whig merchants to boycott English goods
sons of liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. Included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
daughters of liberty
This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
king george III
King of England during the revolution, passed the Intolerable Acts, quarting acts, taxes, aggressive to colonists as to gain the power in the monarchy back, stubborn, removed whigs and replaced with his own people, refused olive branch petition, lord north
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
In 1767 "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as propaganda to promote the Revolution.
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. later served as the second President of the United States.
signed the Declaration of Independence, Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; founder of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated (propaganda) version of events around colonies such as the boston massacure, founded committees of correspondence
committees of correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress, sent letters to eachother
The burning of the British naval cutter by the citizens of Providence, Rhode Island, 1772; example of colonial opposition to the enforcement of the Trade and Navigation Acts.
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices, east india company had one over tea
boston tea party
a raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor, 1773, in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.
tories, American colonists who remained loyal to Britain (king george III) and opposed the war for Independence (american revolution).
coercive, series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests (boston tea party) against the British, closed Boston Harbor, restricted town meetings, and required even private citizens to lodge British soldiers
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
1774, reorganized how british colonies were governed, Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
(offensive term) for the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech, governor of virginia, wanted Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
first continental congress
1774 from committees of correspondence, - Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain (intolerable/coercive acts) and to promote independence, in Philadelphia, Sent a petition to King George III and urged a boycott of British imports
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered
lexington and concord
Where the "Shot heard round the world" took place, eight colonists were killed, the beginning battle of the American Revolution, fought minutemen at Concord while looking for weapons, 73 redcoats died
marquis de lafayette
Young patriot from France who became George Washington's aide durng the Revolution. Gave money to the colonial cause and became like a son to George Washington. became a major, his participation showed that france acknowledged american independence.
of or relating to or concerning the American colonies during and immediately after the Revolutionary War, Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution depreciated to near worthlessness
an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy
second continental congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
battle of bunker hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
olive branch petition
Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George 3 didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion
a professional soldier hired by a foreign army
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
1776 written by Thomas Paine.It stated that it was common sense to rebel against King George. America should break all ties with Britain. It sold over 100,000 copies
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man, "these are the times that try men's souls"
The dedication of citizens to the common wellfare of their community or country, even at the cost of their individual interests.
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
declaration of independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
American colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War, poor, smaller population, army not well trained.
Also known as Tories, the term refers to those Americans who remained loyal to Great Britain during the Revolution.
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband protect the rights of women, member of the daughters of liberity.
general charles cornwallis
1783 - 1805, British military and political leader. Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution. Led British forces during the American Revolution. The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender to george washington at Yorktown in 1781.
George Washington and Continental Army surprised and defeated the Hessians here, captial of new jersery, hessians were drunk and fail.
general johnny burgoyne
This incompetent British general led the northern British army down the Hudson River Valley, expecting to meet up with Howe who had moved his troops to attack Philadelphia instead, and took Fort Ticonderoga, but was slow in movement allowing Benedict Arnold to reenforce General Gates at Oriskany and later Ticonderoga, where this man surrendered his entire army of over 7000 men
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops, retreated here after battle of trenton, Pennsylvania.
baron von steuben
The German commander who taught Washington's troops how to fight at Valley Forge
battle of saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. americans beat british, french impressed, sign treaty to fight with them. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
October, 1780, patriots crushed loyalist militia and executed civilians. Neutral civilians went over to Patriot side. Fought in southern theater in South Carolina.
general nathanael greene
American General who defeated British General Cornwallis and cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops
Mohawk chief who sided with the British to restrain American expansion into the West
john paul jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) who said the famous lines " I have not yet begun to fight" when his ship was sinking but was able to defeat the British
a privately owned ship that has been granted permission by a wartime government to attack an enemy's merchant ships, armed private ship on which the colonists relied to protect their ports
Army formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington, partiots, colonists.
admiral de grasse
French admiral who operated a fleet in the West Indies adivsed colonists (george washington) that he was free to join them in an assualt on Cornwallis. He cornered Cornwallis at Yorktown by blocking the sea.
battle of yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet (admiral de grasse's). He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
treaty of paris
1783, Under this agreement, the British recognized the United States as an independent nation, the borders of the new nation extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and the southern border stopped at Florida, which was returned to Spain. The west of the Mississippi River also went to Spain.