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69 terms

Biology Chapter 3&4 Study Guide

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passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
equilibrium
in chemistry, the state in which a chemical reaction and the reverse chemical reaction occur at the same rate such that the concentrations of reactancts and products do not change
diffusion
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
osmosis
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
hypertonic solution
a solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a higher concentration of dissolved particles that the cytoplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a lower concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm
hypotonic solution
a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a lower concentration of dissolved particles than the cytomplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a higher concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm
isotonic solution
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
ion channel
a pore in a cell membrane through which ions can pass
carrier protein
a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
facilitated diffusion
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active transport
the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
sodium-potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
exocytosis
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesivle that transports the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
receptor protein
a protein that binds specific signal molecules, which causes the cell to respond
second messenger
a molecule that is generated when a specific substance attaches to a receptor on the outside of a cell membrane, which produces a change in cellular function
cell membrane
cells share common structural features including an outer boundary called this
cytoplasm
the cell membrane encloses the cell and separates the cell interior GELL LIKE HOLDS ORGANELLES IN PLACE
cytoskeleton
this is within the cytoplasm are many structures often suspended in a system of microscopic fibers HOLLOW TUBES GIVE SUPPORT AND PROTECTION AND SHAPE
ribosomes
are the cellular structures on which proteins are made
prokaryote
is a single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal compartments
cell wall
surrounding the cell membrane that provides structure and support
flagella
many prokaryotes have this, its a long thread like structure that protrude from the cell's surface and enable movement.
eukaryote
is an organism whose cells have a nucleus
nucleus
is an internal compartment that houses the cell's dna
organelle
is a structure that carries out specific activities in the cell
cilia
short hairlike structures
phospholid
is a lipid made of phosphate group and two fatty acids
lipid bilayer
in a cell membrane the phospoholipds are arranged in a double layer
endoplasmic reticulum
and extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell
vesicle
is a small membrane bound sac that transports substances in cells
golgi apparatus
is a set of flattened membrane bound sacs that serve as the packaging and distribution center of the cell
lysosomes
small spherical organelles that contain the cell's digestive enzymes, BREAKDOWN SUBSTANCES LARGER AND LOOK LIKE SCATTERED CIRCLES
mitochondria
an organelle that harvest energy from organic compound to make atp
micrograph
image produced by microscope
two liquid fatty acids
What makes up a phospholipid?
they are single celled organelles without a nucleus. have a cell wall and flagella. ex plant cell fungus cell. have organelles
What are the characteristics of a prokaryotic cell and give examples.
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and they dont use energy
What are the 3 types of passive transport and how are they different from active transport?
Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow.
Who helped the Develop the cell theory?
All living things are made of one or more cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. All cells arise from existing cells
What are the 3 parts of the cell theory.
exorcytosis
the movement of substances out of the cell that uses active transport
it helps the body function and is a protective outer layer that controls what goes in and out of the cell
describe what the cell membrane does, and its structure.
cell wall, nucleolus, nuclear envelope
Where is the DNA located? What surrounds it as a protective layer?
they both use proteins to move
What do active transport and facilitated diffusion have in common?
hypertonic solution
loses water, shrinks
hypotonic solution
wells and gains too much water
chloroplast
organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
central vacuole
stores water and has ions nutrients and wastes
ribosomes
little dots inside endoplasmic reticulum make protein
nucleus
protect and direct dna
mitochondria
uses energy
passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
equilibrium
in chemistry, the state in which a chemical reaction and the reverse chemical reaction occur at the same rate such that the concentrations of reactancts and products do not change
diffusion
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
osmosis
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
hypertonic solution
a solution that causes a cell to shrink because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a higher concentration of dissolved particles that the cytoplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a lower concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm
hypotonic solution
a solution that causes a cell to swell because of osmosis; the fluid outside the cell has a lower concentration of dissolved particles than the cytomplasm has, likewise, the outside fluid also has a higher concentration of free water molecules than the cytoplasm
isotonic solution
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
ion channel
a pore in a cell membrane through which ions can pass
carrier protein
a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
facilitated diffusion
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active transport
the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
sodium-potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
exocytosis
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesivle that transports the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
receptor protein
a protein that binds specific signal molecules, which causes the cell to respond
second messenger
a molecule that is generated when a specific substance attaches to a receptor on the outside of a cell membrane, which produces a change in cellular function

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