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Abnormal Psychology Chapters 10-15 Multiple Choice
Terms in this set (386)
which statement is true about factitious disorders?
those with factitious disorders are not trying to achieve some external gain by faking illness
having a background in medicine, but also a grudge against the profession, puts a person at risk for
a factitious disorder
a woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments. you think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms to appear sick, which fills some psychological need. you would diagnose
if a chronically ill child was removed from his or her home and placed in foster care, and then became quite healthy, one might suspect that the parent (usually the mother) was experiencing
a factitious disorder
munchausen syndrome by proxy is most likely to adversely affect the physical well-being of
the child of the person experiencing it
just before debuting at carnegie hall, the pianist suffered paralysis of her left hand. which best describes her disorder?
disorders that represent the conversion of conflicts and anxiety into physical symptoms would include
conversion disorders most often appear in
which is likely to be useful in distinguishing conversion or somatic symptom disorders from true medical problems?
the failure of a condition to develop as expected
if a person complains of a wide variety of physical symptoms over a period of time in the absence of a physical basis for the symptoms, the diagnosis would likely be
somatic symptom disorder
a patient several surgeries over the years for vague and nonspecific sexual reproductive problems, visiting many of the top hospitals on the east coast during the course of treatment. the best diagnosis for this disorder is
somatic symptom disorder
a woman has experienced a wide range of vague but disturbing physical symptoms over a period of several years. doctors cannot find a cause for the problems; medically, the woman appears normal. based on this information, the best diagnosis would be
somatic symptom disorder (somatization pattern)
in the latter half of the nineteenth century, a person who today is diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder would most likely have been diagnosed with
abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are diagnosed as
somatic symptom disorder
a woman who has close female relatives diagnosed with a somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder. according to research, her probability of being diagnosed with the same disorder is about
about what percentage of american men experience a somatic symptom disorder in a given year?
less than 1 percent
which statement best reflects our understanding of hysterical disorders?
the causes of hysterical disorder are poorly understood, with no theory predominant in aiding understanding
it was convenient when rowena awoke blind. she had been terrified about testifying in court and now she did not have to. this is an example of
if a man's behavior elicited kindness and sympathy from his wife when he was mute, he would be receiving ? gains from his behavior
every time miguel had a headache, his mother let him miss school. now, as an adult, his headaches have become more frequent. his head pounds any time he is required to do something he would rather not do. this is a ? explanation of conversion symptoms.
the first time the patient reported vague chest pains to a 911 operator, local EMTs responded with obvious attention and concern. over the next several months, the patient called 911 more and more often, receiving the same concerned care for the same symptoms. the pattern of patient response is most easily explained by which theoretical perspective?
the main criticism of the behavioral and psychodynamic explanations for the maintenance of hysterical disorders is that
they can't explain how the gains can outweigh the pain of the disorder
which statement would a cognitive theorist be most likely to say about hysterical disorders?
the patient is otherwise unable to communicate difficult emotions
an individual who has been diagnosed with a somatic symptom disorder would most likely first seek
albert had finally had enough of his inability to walk. he went to a psychologist, who told him there was nothing medically wrong with him. the therapist was using the treatment approach of
behavioral therapists treating a conversion disorder would be most likely to focus on
reducing the rewards available for displaying the disorder
"it seem to me that people with illness anxiety disorder simply model what they see others doing." a person with which theoretical view would be most likely to say this?
increasingly concerned about my minor heartbeat irregularities, i think that my health is being threatened, and more and more often i misinterpret my body's normal signals. which viewpoint best explains my experiences?
a group of physical illnesses that seem to be caused or worsened by an interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors is called
psychological factors affecting other medical conditions
worldwide, 235 million people suffer from
shelly is experiencing shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, and feels as if she is choking. what does shelly have?
approximately 45 million americans suffer from
the leading cause of death globally, resulting in 7.3 million deaths each year, is
coronary heart disease
steven tends to fall asleep at the drop of a hat: while watching television, eating, and even driving. he would most likely be diagnosed with
defects in the ? system are thought to contribute to the development of psychophysiological disorders
people with ? are thought to be more relaxed, less aggressive, and less concerned about time
type B personality style
who is most likely to experience a psychophysiological disorder?
sean, an african-american male in his thirties
who developed the social readjustment rating scale?
holmes and rahe
research has found that if a person's life change credits (LCUs) totaled more than ? over the course of a year, he or she was particularly likely to develop serious health problems.
? is the study of the connections between stress, the body's immune system, and illness.
which system is the body's network of activities and cells that identify and destroy antigens and cancer cells?
which is a foreign invader of the body?
? are white blood cells that circulate through the lymph system and bloodstream
fungi are an example of
? produce antibodies
? compared the immune systems of 26 people whose spouses had died 8 weeks earlier with those of 26 matched control group participants whose spouses had not died. blood samples revealed that lymphocyte functioning was much lower in the bereaved people than in the controls.
bartrop and colleagues
stress leads to increased activity by the
sympathetic nervous system
if stress continues for an extended period of time, ? and ? give an inhibitory message to lymphocytes
shelly has started smoking to help ease her stress from work. if she develops a psychophysiological disorder, it will be a result of
margo feels a lot of stress from home and has stated drinking more than usual. if she develops a psychophysiological disorder it will be because of
kelsey feels stressed because of her responsibilities of being a mom. however, she tends to be optimistic, engages in constructive coping, and is resilient. the likelihood of her developing a psychophysiological disorder is slim due to
juanita often feels lonely and does not have many close friends. she also has poor immune functioning and tends to get sick often. this may be due to
janet has been diagnosed with breast cancer. she has a very supportive husband, caring children, and several friends who will provide support for her during her recovery. as a result of this ?, she is more likely to have a successful recovery
?, often in combination with medication, has been widely used in the treatment of high blood pressure
theresa has hypertension. which is most likely to be recommended as a treatment for her?
? has been of some help in the treatment of heartbeat irregularities, asthma, high blood pressure, stuttering, and pain
? is a technique of turning one's concentration inward, achieving a slightly changed state of consciousness, and temporarily ignoring all stressors
with ?, a person pays attention to the feelings, thoughts, and sensations that are flowing through his or her mind but do so with detachment and objectivity, and most important, without judgment
beyond its use in the control of pain, ? has been used successfully to help treat such problems as skin diseases, asthma, insomnia, high blood pressure, warts, and other forms of infection
you are a therapist using self-instruction training. your client repeatedly tells you "i can't take the pain. it's just too much." this is an example of
in one study, asthma and arthritis patients who wrote down their thoughts and feelings about stressful events for a handful of days showed lasting improvements in their conditions. this is an example of the effectiveness of
? and ? are equally helpful in the treatment of high blood pressure, headaches, and asthma
which person would be most likely to cut out sweets, then eliminate more and more types of foods, but not engage in forced vomiting?
someone experiencing restricting-type anorexia nervosa
a person who stopped eating candy and other sweets, then gradually eliminated other foods until he or she was eating almost nothing, could be experiencing
restricted-type anorexia nervosa
which is not a characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
a view that one is currently unattractively thin
which statement is not true about anorexia nervosa?
about 25 percent of people who experience anorexia nervosa are men
the peak age rang for the development of anorexia nervosa is
14 to 20
the preoccupation with food characteristic of anorexia nervosa is thought to
result from starvation
a modern explanation of why many people with anorexia continually have food-related thoughts and dreams is that
such thoughts and dreams are the result of food deprivation
people who do not have anorexia who are placed on a starvation diet
show many of the food preoccupations of people with anorexia nervosa
people suffering from anorexia nervosa tend to
overestimate their body size
if a person says, "i must be perfect in every way. i'll be a better person if i deprive myself of food," that person is engaging in
the psychological disorder that anorexia nervosa most resembles is
which psychological problem is least likely to be associated with anorexia nervosa?
a patient in therapy who eats exactly eight pieces of bread that he has carefully made into balls of equal diameter is displaying a symptom of anorexia nervosa related to
which problem is common in anorexia nervosa?
a woman with anorexia has lanugo. what has happened?
she has grown fine silky hair on her body
someone who fasts or exercised strenuously following a binge is engaging in
which is not a compensatory behavior for someone with bulimia?
preoccupation with food
the most accurate diagnosis for a woman who regularly eats a whole pizza, a carton of ice cream, and a box of donuts at one sitting, then forces herself to throw it all up, is
which is a diagnostic criterion for bulimia nervosa?
lack of control over eating during binging
if binge eating is followed by a period of strenuous exercise to compensate for the food, the diagnosis is probably
compared to people with anorexia nervosa, most people with bulimia
are of a more normal weight
many teenagers go on occasional eating binges. which statement is true about this behavior?
most people who engage in the behavior do not have bulimia
what appears to be the key factor in determining the types of food that are likely to be eating in a binge?
rapidity through soft texture
for people with bulimia nervosa, binge episodes produce feelings of
guilt and depression
vomiting as a compensatory behavior for those experiencing bulimia
ironically, leads to greater hunger and more frequent binges
participants who have just completed a very low calorie weight loss program would be most at risk for
similarities between bulimia and anorexia include
both tend to begin after a period of dieting among people afraid of becoming obese
which statement is suggested by recent research on body dissatisfaction among college students?
men who are overweight and underweight are more dissatisfied than those who are of medium weight
the medical problem that is twice as frequent in women with anorexia as it is in women with bulimia is
people who are overweight and regularly binge eat without compensatory behaviors are experiencing
for which disorder would you expect to find nearly equal numbers of men and women sufferers?
a person who eats large amounts of food in a short period and does this repeatedly, with no other symptoms, would be said to have
a binge-eating disorder
if a therapist thought that eating disorders were best explained by an interaction of sociocultural, psychological, and biological factors, that therapist would be taking a
hilde bruch's ego deficiency view of children with eating disorders involves
children lacking control over their lives and misperceiving internal cues
parents who feed their children when they are anxious and comfort them when they are tired, rather than giving them a nap, run the risk of producing children who
can't assess their own needs
compared to a person who is happy and self-confident, a person who is bored and depressed
is more likely to eat junk food
"i have this vague sense that something isn't right, but i just can't describe it," is a statement most likely said by someone experiencing
in general, which statement about feelings that trigger eating is true?
positive emotions are less likely than negative emotions to trigger the eating of junk food
if researchers find that many people with eating disorders also have symptoms of depression, they know that
eating disorders and depression are somehow related
pro-ana websites view anorexia not as a disorder, but as a
the levels of ? are low in many people with depression and those with eating disorders
"depression and eating disorders are correlated." what does this statement mean?
people with eating disorders also tend to be depressed
in which case is someone most likely to develop an eating disorder?
if the person has an identical twin with anorexia nervosa
the part of the brain most closely associated with the control of eating and body weight is the
which medical breakthrough is most likely to appeal to an overweight person?
a way to safely increase GLP-1 in humans
according to recent research, which is the least likely reason a person becomes obese?
lack of willpower
people who are mildly to moderately obese can legitimately conclude that
they should be left alone or encouraged to set only realistic weight-loss goals
what should be addressed to change the high rates of eating disorders among US children and adolescents?
western notions of beauty and societal values
which is the most accurate biological explanation for people who gain weight after losing it?
the brain is trying to restore the person to a set weight point
the weight set point is
the weight a person is predisposed to maintain
based on past results, one would predict that women who win the miss america pageant in the future will
be smaller than those in the past
which professions put one most at risk for an eating disorder?
actors and certain athletes
which activity is an overweight female teenager with an eating disorder not more likely to do than her peers?
in one study, prospective parents rated a picture of a chubby child as less ? than an average-weight child
friendly and intelligent
almost two-thirds of women athletes engage in self-destructive ways of controlling their weight. which method is most common?
taking diet pills
salvador minuchin describes a family system in which members are overly involved in each other's affairs as an
enmeshed family pattern
which conclusion about family patterns and eating disorders is most supported by systematic research?
families of those with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa vary widely
if current trends concerning the body images of african american women and white american women continue, one would expect that in the future
african american women would show increasing body image dissatisfaction
the eating disorders are rising among nonwhite americans to levels approaching the rates for white americans is most likely due to
what is the most likely explanation for the different explanations of eating disorders in men and women?
male eating disorders are more likely to be tied to work or sports
which situation would be most likely to lead to a diagnosis of muscle dysmorphobia?
a man who is muscular but doesn't see himself as being muscular and so continues to strive for a perfect body
a man with muscle dysmorphobia is most likely to
feel that he is scrawny despite the fact that he is not
the major disadvantage of using forced tube feeding for patients with eating disorders who refuse to eat is that the patients
may become distrustful of the medical establishment and uncooperative with further treatment
the treatment that has been the most popular for restoring weight among persons with anorexia is
supportive nursing care and a high calorie diet
all treatments for anorexia nervosa share the long term common goal of
addressing the underlying causes of the disorders
the most realistic statement a person with anorexia would make following cognitive treatment is
i expect to feel fat because of my illness
an example of a disturbed cognition that might be present in a person being treated for anorexia is the statement
my weight and shape determine my value
research on the aftermath of anorexia nervosa shows that
the death rate from anorexia appears to be declining
what is a likely long term consequence of anorexia?
continuing concern about weight and appearance
all the treatment methods for bulimia nervosa share the immediate goal of
assisting patients to eliminate their binge-purge patterns
peter is a behavioral therapist who exposes patients with bulimia to situations that usually cause binge episodes and then prevents them from binge eating. the technique that she is called
exposure and response prevention
one of the therapy methods commonly used to treat bulimia nervosa is
exposure and response prevention
relapse for people with bulimia and people with anorexia is most likely triggered by
a factor increasing the likelihood of a relapse of a person with bulimia is
development of a pattern of frequent vomiting
which of the following would not be considered a drug?
a frequent drug user finds that larger doses of a drug are necessary to produce the same high that much lower doses once produced. that drug user is developing
melanie has been out with friends and has been using drugs. in spite of being obviously uncoordinated and under the influence, she wants to drive her car. her condition is an example of
mendon began by taking one amphetamine a day to control his appetite. after a month or so, the one pill did not work as well but two pills did. this is an example of
a person who experiences vomiting and shaking when she tries to stop drinking alcohol has developed
which is a depressant?
if all you know about someone is that the person has been binge drinking in the past month, you know the person had at least
five drinks at a time at least once, and probably is a male
because alcohol binds to neurons that normally receive the NT GABA, it is not surprising that alcohol
pat and jody each have five screwdrivers (OJ and vodka). pat gets very drunk. jody does not. which of the following is most likely to be true?
pat is a woman, and jody is a man.
in women, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase is found at
lower levels in the stomach, making them more susceptible to getting drunk
a person has ingested enough ethyl alcohol to lose consciousness but has not died. the most probable alcohol concentration in that person, expressed as a percent of blood volume, is
two people of the same gender and weight consume the same amount of alcohol in the same amount of time. nevertheless, one of them sobers up substantially sooner than the other. most likely, this difference is due to
liver function; some people's livers metabolize alcohol faster than others' livers
one study shows that, in substance-free dorms, the percentage of students who are occasional binge drinkers is
about 36 percent
an individual who is dependent on alcohol is experiencing delirium tremens. this reaction is
uncommon, starting within three days after an individual stops drinking
in what proportion of suicides and rapes in the US does alcoholism play a role?
a patient in an alcohol rehabilitation center tells you a detailed story about growing up in the mountains of TN. later, you find out that the person had never even visited TN. a day later you visit the patient again, and the patient does not recognize you. most likely, the patient is suffering from
kelly is a long time serious drinker. in the last year she has started having huge memory lapses. when this happens, she makes up wild stories to help her fill in what she doesn't remember. this symptom is called
a pattern of abnormalities, head and facial deformities, heart defects, and intellectual development disorder characterizes someone with
fetal alcohol syndrome
barbiturates were first prescribed to help people
because of the likelihood of convulsions, withdrawal from ? is especially dangerous
a wounded veteran of the US civil war suffering from soldiers' disease most likely was suffering from
after an accident, kendra was taken to the hospital with broken legs and arms. she was almost immediately given a shot that reduced her pain. the shot was most likely
sam has just had an injection of heroin. he feels intense pleasure very quickly. this is known as
the pleasant feeling called a high produced by using narcotics is due to
the drug attaching to sites normally receptive to endorphins
in the past 30 years, the rate of opioid adduction in the US has
gone down and up at least twice
why is the risk of transmitting AIDS is an important factor for heroin users?
because heroin users often share needles that can be infected
cocaine and amphetamines produce
similar behavioral effects and similar emotions effects
a friend says, "i want to minimize my risks of organ damage and long-lasting mental change. what kind of drug should i most avoid?" your best response is
mario felt awake and alive as though he could conquer the world. he most likely used
the proportion of americans over the age of 11 who smoke is about
methods of supplying nicotine to those who are trying to quit smoking include all of the following except
the subcutaneous nicotine pump
freebasing has the effect of making cocaine
ellen stopped taking her regular amount of cocaine after using it for months. she will probably experience
headaches, depressed feelings, and crashing
which is not a risk for young people abusing cocaine?
lola's physician prescribed diet pills many years ago. which of the following drugs did the pills most likely contain?
the club drug that damages nerve endings but is not considered hallucinogenic is
the perceptual distortions some drugs produce are called
a person takes a drug at noon. although remaining awake and alert, the person experiences poor coordination, palpitations, and greatly enhanced visual perceptions. by dinner, the symptoms have pretty well subsided. most likely, that person
months after taking a drug, a former drug abuser still produces very little serotonin. the person is depressed and anxious and has great difficulty remembering new material. most likely, the abused drug-if it was a single drug-was
an acquaintance of yours uses ecstasy and says, "wow! i was totally energized and tripping. it was like LSD and meth combined." your acquaintance's experience with ecstasy was
common; the drug has both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties
what is the risk of tolerance and physical addiction to hallucinogens as compared to that of other addictive drugs?
the most powerful form of cannabis is
according the the chart in your textbook, teenagers say that the drug easiest for them to obtain is
a high school student asks you, "whats the big deal about using pot? how can it hurt me?" the most accurate reply you could make is
if you're high, you won't be able to remember what you just learned
which is a negative effect of cannabis use?
decrease in fertility
throughout much of the US, it is illegal to use marijuana, even for medical reasons. compared to other nations, this is
common; most countries do not allow either medical or recreational use of marijuana
probably the worst thing one who has partied hard with alcohol could do right after drinking would be to
take some barbiturates to fall asleep
which combination is most likely to result in antagonist effects?
barbiturates and cocaine
which person would be most likely to develop alcoholism?
a lower socioeconomic class person living in a high unemployment area
according to the recent studies, in a random sample of 24 employed adults, you would expect that about 2 of them would be using an illegal drug. in a random sample of 24 unemployed adults, how many illegal drug users would you expect to find?
studies attempting to relate personality traits to potential for developing substance abuse show that
no single trait or combination of traits predicts substance abuse
a manager who feels anxious about speaking in front of large groups frequently has a couple of glasses of wine to relax before beginning to speak. this medicinal use of alcohol can be explained most easily
by operant conditioning
a marijuana user has just taken the drug. almost half an hour passes before the user begins to experience the drug high. most likely, the user has taken the drug by
eating it in some food
is there any genetic explanation for substance use disorders?
maybe; those with a substance use disorder are more likely than those without a disorder to have an abnormal D2 receptor gene
chronic and excessive use of benzodiazepines may cause the
decreased production of GABA
a researcher reports that a drug directly stimulates a reward center in the brain rather than through indirect stimulation of a reward center. the drug the researcher is studying could be any of the following drugs except
which of the following has been identified as a problem in designing and evaluating treatment methods for substance abuse?
it has been difficult to precisely define treatment success
the most commonly used form of treatment for a substance use disorder is
according to reports about the effectiveness of drug courts and sobriety high programs, how likely are those who complete these programs to violate the law again compared with those who do not complete them?
one-quarter as likely
sobriety high and drug court programs
cost more than regular educational programs but save society money in the long run
a client being treated for alcohol abuse receives just enough of a drug called curare to produce temporary paralysis as that client takes a swig of beer. presumably, sufficient pairings of paralysis and alcohol will reduce the client's desire for alcohol. this procedure is called
jason, a recovering heavy drinker, has been trained to identify the situations that might cause him to drink and to be aware of when he should stop drinking. this approach is known as
a client receiving treatment for substance abuse keeps track of times the substance is used and develops strategies to deal with the substance when there is an opportunity to use it. the client is most likely receiving
jess thought she was taking an aspirin. but later when she had a glass of wine and became very nauseated and she realized the pill was
the use of narcotic antagonists can be dangerous. this is based on their ability to initiate
the use of methadone in drug maintenance programs is controversial because methadone
produces withdrawal that is sometimes more difficult than heroin withdrawal
hanna goes to a meeting because her husband in an alcoholic who only occasionally can abstain from alcohol. the meetings with other people in similar situations helps her cope. she probably attends meetings of
alcoholics anonymous supports the belief that alcoholics should
cease drinking entirely
recent studies show that gender-sensitive programs for treating substance abuse
may be very useful; substance abusers of different genders have different physical and psychological reactions to drugs
dsm-5 includes gambling disorder as an addictive disorder, along with substance use disorder. this inclusion is
unique; gambling disorder is the only disorder in the category that doesn't involve a substance
"i feel great! let's go to the casino and play the slots." your friends has been to the casino several times in the past two weeks and just can't seem to stay away. does your friend qualify for the diagnosis of gambling disorder?
maybe; a distressed mood goes with gambling, and your friend's behavior seems out of control
"i've been diagnosed with gambling disorder. what kind of therapy works best?" based on current research, your best response is
i'd suggest cognitive-behavioral therapies, biological therapies, and self-help groups
"i just received a dsm-5 diagnosis of internet use disorder. what do you think?" your most accurate reply would be
thats not possible. the disorder is not in the dsm-5
which statement most accurately reflects what is being done in the area of internet use disorder at the present time?
a lot; internet use disorder is not a dsm-5 category, but people who meet the disorder's criteria act similarly to those with gambling disorder, which is in the dsm-5
if someone had a sexual dysfunction, we know that this person would not be having difficulty in which of the following phases of the sexual response cycle?
a man who has never been able to achieve or maintain an erection for sexual intercourse would most likely be diagnosed with what type of erectile disorder?
if an individual had experienced normal sexual functioning for years and gradually developed a problem with becoming aroused under any condition, the type of dysfunction would be
acquired and generalized
if a woman had never experienced normal sexual functioning with her husband and had a problem with becoming aroused with him but found she could be aroused with other men, the type of dysfunction would be
lifelong and situational
according to masters and johnson, the resolution phase is more gradual and less sudden in women when
they do not experience orgasm
if grandma is 90 and healthy, what is the chance, expressed as a percentage, that she still masturbates at least occasionally?
higher than 20 percent
if grandpa is 90 and healthy, what is the chance, expressed as a percentage, that he still masturbates at least occasionally?
about 40 percent
an otherwise healthy man reports almost no interest in sexual activity and has had very few sexual experiences in the past several years. that person most likely is experiencing
male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
to be classified as having male hypoactive sexual desire disorder, one would have a reduced interest in sex and little sexual activity, lasting
female sexual interest/arousal disorder differs from male hypoactive sexual desire disorder most notably in that it
includes difficulties in both the desire and arousal stages of the sexual response cycle
which hormone can cause decreased sexual desire when present in low but not high levels?
a young woman who formerly had a fairly high sex drive, and who reports no new medical problems, nonetheless experiences an unexpected drop in sex drive. what would be an important question to ask her, before recommending some sort of psychotherapy?
have you recently started taking birth control pills?
which of the following is not a symptom of female sexual interest/arousal disorder?
inadequate lubrication during sexual activity
obsessive-compulsive symptoms may contribute to low sexual desire because someone with this disorder
finds contact with body fluids and odors unpleasant
in females, labia swells during which phase of the sexual response cycle?
the event that is more likely to result in low sexual desire is
in males, the penis becomes erect during which phase of the sexual response cycle?
erectile dysfunction occurs during the ? phase of sexual arousal
a recent study of erectile disorder showed that most cases of erectile disorder are caused by
a combination of psychosocial and physical causes
what is the most common biological cause of erectile failure in men?
a healthy man is likely to have two to five REM periods each night and several penile erections during that time. if he is not experiencing this, he most likely has
a biologically based erectile dysfunction
a man awakens after eight hours of normal sleep and has an unbroken snap gauge band. there's a good chance that the man has
a physical basis for his erectile problems
which of the following occupations is most similar to what masters and johnson identified as the spectator role in sexual behavior?
based on the likely sociocultural factors related to erectile disorders, the best advice you could give to an aging couple would be to
provide more intense and lengthy penile stimulation
according to dsm-5, the cut-off point for diagnosing early ejaculation is within ? of initiating sexual activity
in the US, over the past several decades, the typical duration of sexual intercourse has
increased, as has the distress of those suffering from early ejaculation
william, a 20 year old who is having his first sexual relationship, has gone to see a sex therapist about a sexual dysfunction problem. what is william most likely suffering from?
a man experiencing the process of erection and partial elevation of the testes is in which stage of sexual response?
which statement is most accurate about female orgasm?
women who are comfortable masturbating are more likely to experience orgasm
the view that modern researchers hold about clitoral orgasms is that they are
normal and healthy
in victorian times, a women diagnosed as insane was presumed to have a dysfunction of her
having a positive relationship with one's mother is associated with ? in women
postive orgasm outcomes
research has revealed that lack of orgasm can sometimes be linked to all the following except
which finding best argues against the idea that female orgasmic problems are due to society's message to women that they should deny their sexuality? many women with arousal and orgasmic difficulties
have a history of rape or child sexual molestation
what is thought to be the cause of vaginismus (the involuntary contraction of vaginal muscles)?
conditioning of a fear response
a woman's dyspareunia is most likely caused by
some physical conditions
what is another name for genital pain during sexual activity?
what problem did early behavioral therapists focus on when treating sexual dysfunction?
if someone receives modern sex therapy, chances are that the therapy will
center on specific sexual problems
the idea that both partners share the accountability for sexual dysfunction is known as
couples in sex therapy who are working on eliminating the spectator role are generally advised to
refrain from having intercourse and focus on other body pleasure instead
in therapy, a patient is taught to visualize sexual scenes and uncover any negative emotions that occur. the therapist is using
in treating erectile disorder, the tease technique involves
stimulating the penis but stopping stimulation once erection occurs
how does viagra work?
it increases blood flow into the penis
EMTs need to be sure to ask someone who is taking nitroglycerin if that person also has taken
the fact that insurance companies in the US generally covered viagra but not birth control pills until required to by state law supports the idea that
society sets different standards for sexually active men than for women
if a man has been taught to masturbate almost to orgasm, and then to insert his penis for intercourse, the man is most probably being treated for
a client receives direct masturbation training and self-exploration instruction as part of the client's sex therapy. most likely, the client is a
woman being treated for orgasmic disorder
which is not a treatment for female orgasmic disorder?
use of the squeeze technique
most sex therapists are uneasy about recent reliance on drug treatments for sexual disorders because
the integrated approach to therapy might be ignored
is a response to a socially inappropriate object or situation
most clinicians would agree that paraphilia activities should not be considered a disorder when
the behavior is part of an otherwise typical sex life
according to the dsm-5, someone who initiates sexual contact with children is
experiencing a paraphilia regardless of how troubled the individual may be
an anti androgen would be most appropriate if a paraphilia disorder is caused by
an inappropriate sex drive
the campus bra bandit steals women's underwear from the campus laundry and then masturbates into the underwear. the most accurate diagnosis would be
when a fetishist imagines the object of the fetish and then immediately imagines an aversive stimulus, the behavioral approach being used is
a man being treated for a fetish to a women's heats first obtains an erection from looking at women's hats and then begins to masturbate while looking at a picture of a nude woman. at the moment of orgasm, he makes sure to look at the picture of the nude woman. the behavioral approach being used is
cross-dressing is another term for
terry has been diagnosed as having a paraphilia, specifically transvestic fetishism. terry is most likely to be
which response from the person he exposed himself to would be least satisfying to an exhibitionist?
ignoring the exhibitionist
which thought would likely be most arousing to a voyeur in the act of secretly watching a couple have sex?
the people would be humiliated if they knew i was watching
during which period does frotteurism typically develop?
in the classic type of pedophilic disorder, those most at risk to become victims are
recent studies of the pedophiles show that
most have at least one other psychological disorder
the technique of having a client with pedophilia identify situations in which he performs inappropriate behavior and then teaching him more appropriate coping strategies is called
autoerotic asphyxia is a fatal side effect of
a masochistic practice
while inflicting pain, perhaps unintentionally, on an animal or person, a teenager may become sexually aroused and later turn out to be a sadist. the theory that best describes this example of the development of sadism is
one who is experiencing gender dysphoria
is unhappy with his or her biological gender
a person feels most comfortable wearing clothes preferred by the opposite gender, strongly wishes to be the opposite gender, and is considering a surgical procedure. the most likely diagnosis for this person is
which theoretical orientation is most helpful in understanding the origin of gender identity disorder?
when people with gender dysphoria take hormones, it is an attempt to
facilitate their living as the other gender
who is most likely to receive phalloplasty?
someone who is experiencing gender dysphoria
the term schizophrenia is derived from the greek from
a middle-aged individual shows many of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and at the same time often appears profoundly depressed. the symptoms have lasted almost a year. this is an example of
a young adult used LSD and now experiences hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech. this would be referred to as
substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder
which is not consistent with the most common pattern of schizophrenia?
women develop the disorder earlier and more severely than men
schizophrenia is found in all socioeconomic classes. however, it is most likely to be found in someone from a
lower socioeconomic level
what kinds of treatment programs seem to work best for mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs)?
long-term, individualized, comprehensive therapy
in general, the problems that mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) face in terms of diagnosis and treatment are
more than those faced by either people with severe mental disorders or chemical abuse disorders
millie sees pretty colored butterflies on all the walls. she also hears gentle music, which is not actually there. the presence of these behaviors illustrates ? symptoms of schizophrenia
antonio believes that the anchor on the evening television news is speaking directly and personally to him. he even goes to the television studio to talk to the anchor. antonio is suffering from
delusions of reference
the main difference between hallucinations and delusions is that
hallucinations involve perception and delusions involve belief
a person with schizophrenia who says, "it's cold today. my cold is better but I go it from the nurse. she is a blonde who lives in manhattan. i live in manhattan with jimmy carter," is experiencing
a person with schizophrenia who hears all the animals around her making plans to get her ready for the ball, and comes to think of herself as cinderella, is experiencing a(n) ? hallucination and a delusion of ?
the most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia is
if you could get inside the head of a person experiencing auditory hallucinations, you would most likely find that
the person actually produces nerve signals of sound in his brain
which is a tactile hallucination?
there are invisible bugs crawling under my tingling skin
shelly is sitting on the couch with her husband and children when suddenly she smells smoke. however, no one else can smell the smoke and there is no fire. what is she experiencing?
poverty of speech, blunted and flat affect, loss of volition, and social withdrawal are all examples of ? symptoms of schizophrenia
a person with schizophrenia who is experiencing alogia is displaying
poverty of speech
armand does not feel much emotion and does not really want to do anything. he has also completely withdrawn from his friends and family. the presence of these behaviors illustrates ? schizophrenia
i sit staring at a blank page, unable to make myself write a new multiple choice test item; i just don't seem to care. my behavior is like that of people with schizophrenia displaying the symptom called
a person with schizophrenia who is experiencing anhedonia is displaying
blunted or flat affect
those with schizophrenia who are unable to recognize other people's needs and emotions and who also distance themselves from reality are displaying
those with schizophrenia who stop responding to their environment and remain motionless and silent for long periods of time are experiencing
those with schizophrenia who hold awkward and bizarre positions for long periods of time are experiencing
which two pairs most closely represent opposites in terms of the behavior you would observe in people with schizophrenia?
catatonic stupor and catatonic excitement
the stage of the development of schizophrenia marked by deterioration of functioning and the display of some mild symptoms is called the
patients are more likely to recover from schizophrenia if they
demonstrated good premorbid functioning
which is not related to a fuller recovery from schizophrenia?
schizophrenia developing in early life
a person with schizophrenia demonstrates poverty of speech and experiences auditory hallucinations. according to the type I-type II evaluation categorization, this person would be
a mix of type I and type II
while type I schizophrenia is dominated by ? symptoms, type II schizophrenia is dominated by ? symptoms
based on family pedigree studies, which relative of an individual with a diagnosis of schizophrenia would be most at risk for developing the disorder?
in general, the closer that people are genetically related to someone with schizophrenia, the more likely they are to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as well. this is evidence of
a postive correlation between a schizophrenia diagnosis and closeness of relationship
a mother experiences baby blues shortly after delivering a child. the chances that she later will develop postpartum psychosis are closest to
1 in 1,000
postpartum psychosis occurs
in about 0.1 percent of women, beginning soon after childbirth
in 2001, andrea yates, showing symptoms of postpartum psychosis, drowned her five children. assuming she was suffering from postpartum psychosis, her actions were
atypical; less than 5 percent of women with postpartum psychosis harm or attempt to harm their offspring
recent research shows that if one identical twin develops schizophrenia, there is almost a 50 percent chance the other twin will develop schizophrenia. if future research confirms this finding, we will have evidence of
strong environmental and strong genetic components of schizophrenia
the data from studies of the biological and adoptive parents of children who receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia as adults show that the concordance rate of schizophrenia with biological relatives is
higher than with adoptive relatives
which is the best example of a finding from genetic linkage and molecular biology studies?
gene defects on certain chromosomes predispose one to schizophrenia
why are people who take medication for schizophrenia often given medication that helps control shaking and tremors?
medication used to treat schizophrenia leads to parkinson like symptoms
researchers found that phenothiazines reduced psychotic symptoms but also caused parkinsonian symptoms, like tremors. this discovery suggests that
schizophrenia is tied to excessive dopamine
the link between dopamine and schizophrenia is supported by the finding that
lower dopamine activity helps remove schizophrenia symptoms
recently, the dopamine hypothesis for schizophrenia has been challenged because it has been discovered that
effective new drugs suggest abnormal NT activity of serotonin as well as dopamine
people with schizophrenia have not been found to have
larger amounts of cortical gray matter
the viral explanation for schizophrenia suggests that brain abnormalities, and therefore schizophrenia, result from viral exposure
according to freud, people with schizophrenia
regress to pre-ego state of primary narcissism
according to frieda fromm-reichmann, schizophrenia is caused by
a schizophrenogenic mother
most contemporary psychodynamic theorists would agree with which statement?
schizophrenogenic mothers, if they do exist, don't create children with schizophrenia
if people with schizophrenia make at least modest gains when they receive behavioral therapy, this would indicate that
some symptoms of schizophrenia may be learned
the behavioral view of schizophrenia
provides a partial explanation for the origins and symptoms of schizophrenia
occasionally, you see or hear things. your friends tell you it's your imagination, but eventually, you come to think your friends are hiding something and you develop delusions of persecution to explain their behavior. this thinking leads you down the rational path to madness. this scenario is consistent with the
which statement accurately represents the rational path to madness?
i experience disturbing symptoms, i talk them over with others. others say i am imagining things. i decide others are lying to me.
compared to those diagnosed with schizophrenia who live in developing countries, those diagnosed with schizophrenia who live in developed countries are
less likely to recover fully and more likely to be hospitalized
a person diagnosed with schizophrenia is not hospitalized, yet eventually shows complete remission of symptoms. this pattern is
typical of what happens in developing countries
the complete remission rate for those diagnosed with schizophrenia is
higher in developing countries than in undeveloped countries, possibly because of better family and social support
people around those who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia begin to treat them as if they are crazy, expecting and overreacting to odd behaviors that they might not even notice in others. this observation is most consistent with the ? understanding of schizophrenia
which is the best example of a double-bind communication?
saying "i love you" to a child but refusing to allow that child in your lap
if observations of a relationship between expressed emotions in families and recovery from schizophrenia demonstrate cause and effect, one would predict that relapse would be least common in people with schizophrenia whose families
infrequently express criticism and allow a good deal of privacy
what was the dominant way of treating people with schizophrenia during the first half of the twentieth century?
which statement is true of state mental hospitals in the US in the mid-twentieth century?
they were overcrowded and understaffed
most patients who lived on the hospital wards in the state mental hospitals in the mid-1900s
were people with schizophrenia
the technique for treating mental patients that was pioneered by egas moniz was
during a ? a needle is inserted into the brain through the eye socket and is then rotated to destroy brain tissue
some hospitalized mental patients not only failed to improve but also suffered negative effects of their care. this syndrome is called
social breakdown syndrome
long-term mental patients frequently developed anger, aggressiveness, and loss of interest in personal appearance. this condition has been called
social breakdown syndrome
which therapy is based on the premise that when you change the social environment, you can change the patient?
milieu therapy is based primarily on the principles of ? psychology
a patient who is called a resident who lives in a therapeutic community and actively works with staff members to create a life that is as much like that outside the hospital as possible, is probably receiving ? therapy
in behavioral terms, what is a token?
a third grade teacher gives students stickers throughout the school day when they engage in appropriate behaviors. at the end of the day, the students can trade in their stickers for treats from the class treasure chest. this program is most similar to which form of therapy used for institutionalized people with schizophrenia?
a hospitalized patient no longer talks about delusions and hallucinations, thanks to participating in a token economy program. however, critics of the token economy program would say that the token economy program has
not eliminated the delusions and hallucinations, but improved the patient's ability to imitate normal behavior
what is the concern regarding the changes produced by token economies?
the person may have learned new behaviors without changing distorted thinking
the discovery of antihistamine drugs in the 1940s indirectly led to the development of
the term neuroleptic is applied to drugs that
can mimic symptoms of neurological disorders
if one could use only a single treatment for schizophrenia and wanted the most effective treatment, one should choose
which is the more effective treatment for schizophrenia?
the symptom of schizophrenia most likely to be relieved by antipsychotic drugs is
one of the unwanted and later side effects of antipsychotic medications is
a woman has been treated with chlorpromazine for several years. lately she seems to be chewing gum all the time and her arms are always in motion. she has begun to display twitching facial tics. this is an example of
if a person with schizophrenia were making involuntary tic like movements of the tongue, mouth, face, or whole body, smacking the lips, and making sucking and chewing movements, one would suspect the patient
had been taking antipsychotic medication for a long time
what do parkinson-like symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia have in common?
they all involve disruption of motor control
the proportion of patients taking antipsychotic medication who eventually develop the tardive dyskinesia is closest to
tardive dyskinesia can be overlooked because
it has symptoms that are similar to schizophrenia
which antipsychotic drug appears to work at serotonin receptors?
the second-generation antipsychotic drugs were called atypical because
their biological operations differ from that of conventional antipsychotic medications
"i want to maximize the antipsychotic effect of a drug while minimizing its undesirable side effects." whats the best advice you can the doctor?
use an atypical antipsychotic drug
advantages of atypical antipsychotic drugs over conventional medications include
newer medications produce fewer extrapyramidal effects
what is considered to be the first line of treatment for schizophrenia?
second-generation antipsychotic medications
frieda fromm=reichmann's approach to psychotherapy with patients who has schizophrenia was to
build a sense of trust in the patient
which type of therapy has clients interact with computer generated on screen virtual human figures in an attempt to help them overcome their psychological problems?
therapists who advise clients to resist following orders from their hallucinatory voices are using a technique from the cognitive-behavioral approach that involves
challenging ideas about the power of hallucinations
therapists who teach clients to make statements such as, "it's not a real voice; it's my illness" are using a technique from the cognitive-behavioral approach that involves
interpreting their hallucinations
new-wave cognitive-behavioral therapies are most similar to
acceptance and commitment therapy
the goal of family therapy is
to help the family better support the patient with schizophrenia
families with high levels of expressed emotion
express negative emotions like hostility and criticism
a patient who receives help in finding work, in finding a place to live, and in taking medication correctly is probably receiving
the community mental health act stipulated that patients with mental disorders should receive all except ? without leaving their communities
in the original community mental health act, the place where individuals would be treated was a
community mental health center
if a person being treated for schizophrenia goes each day to a center where the focus is on improving social skills and receiving therapy, the person is participating in
a person lives at home but spends his day at a mental health facility. the facility might be described as providing
helen was jut discharged from a public mental health facility. she went to live with other former patients in a group-living arrangement. there were staff members to help out but the residents controlled most of the day-to-day activities. helen's living arrangement is a
people with schizophrenia who are working in a sheltered workshop are receiving
in the treatment of schizophrenia, a case manager's primary goal is to help with
coordination of services
where would you find about one-third of people who have schizophrenia?
living on their own, unsupervised
if you went to a meeting of a group lobbying for better care for the mentally ill and made up primarily of family members of people with severe mental disorders, you would probably be attending
the national alliance on mental illness
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