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Testicles do not descend into the scrotum


One testicle is undescended


Both testicles are undescended


Location of testicles: subcutaneous in the groin


Location of testicles: within the abdomen


Inflammation/infection of the prostate

Prostatic Neoplasia

Cancer of the prostate, Common in dogs, rare in cats




Difficulty deficating


Inflammation/infection of the prepuce. Yellowish and greenish discharge. Yellowish discharge is normal in intact males, do not confuse with this. May clear up on its own or require antibiotic treatment


The penile sheath

Urethral Abstruction

With urinary calculi. Most common in male cats, occurs in male dogs, esp. Dalmations. Crystals and stones also occur in females, but obstruction is rare in females


Urinary stones

Testicular Neoplasia

Cancer of the testes. Obvious size difference between testes. Bumpy surface on testis. May be ulcerated through scrotum. Best treatment is castration

Vulvar Fold Dermatitis

Inflammation/infection in folds of skin surrounding vulva. Accumulation of urine and vaginal secretions in the folds. Warm moist environment for growth of bacteria and yeast. Common in overweight dogs, rare in cats


Distention of the uterus with pus. Intact female dogs and cats. Number one treatment is to spay the animal

Mammary Neoplsia

Tumors of the mammary glands. Dogs and cats. May ulcerate through the skin. Far more common in intact females and females that exp. multiple heats before spaying


Inflammation/infection of the vagina. Yellowish to greenish vaginal discharge. May clear up on its own or require antibiotic treatment

Vaginal/Uterine Prolapse

Protrusion of the vagina or uterus through vulva. Most commonly occurs postpartum. A red inflamed mass is usually evident. Fluid may need to be drawn out of the tissue before it can be replaced


After giving birth


Heat. Dogs will have bloody discharge, vulvar edema, mammary development and standing heat. Cats may tread, preform lordosis, deviated tail, vocalization, thich mucus dishcharge


Ventral curvature of spine, crouched in front, with hindquarters raised


Intact animal, distended abdomen, mammary development. from two weeks onward, fetuses may be palpated through abdominal wall

Urinary Tract Infection

UTI. Signs; frequent urination, may be little output each time, pain upon urination, blood in urine, foul odor to urine

Renal Failure

Kidney failure. Signs; frequent urination, usually a large volume of dilute urine, weight loss, oral ulcers, halitosis


Bad Breath

Urinary Incontinence

Inability to control the flow of urine. Most common in spayed female dogs, geriatric animals

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