42 terms

Unit 4; The Early National Period

1789-1825: Washington through Monroe
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John Marshall
Supreme Court Chief Justice whose decisions strengthened the national governnment and the judicial branch
judicial review
power of courts to declare laws unconstitutional
Marbury v. Madison
Court case which established judicial review, guaranteeing judicial branch to be coequal to other two branches
Gibbons v. Ogden
Court case which ruled on interstate commerce, insuring national courts to decide disputes
McCulloch v. Maryland
Court case which ruled on states taxing National Bank, approves of implied powers of Congress
precedent
a legal decision that becomes a tradition
George Washington
At the close of his presidency, the first political parties developed over the issue of the national bank
Cabinet
The President's informal advisory committee established by Washington
John Adams
Federalist President associated with the XYZ Affair and the Alien and Sedition Acts and an undeclared war with France
XYZ Affair
International scandal as French officials demanded bribes, Adams refused!
Alien and Sedition Acts
These were passed to silence critics of Adams and the Federalists, would probably have been a violation of freedom of speech
Alexander Hamilton
Federalist leader who wanted to establish a national bank
Thomas Jefferson
Democratic-Republican President associated with the Louisiana Purchase and his opposition to the National Bank
Impressment
The British practice of forcing sailors back into the British Navy from American ships
Election of 1800
Jefferson wins and this proves power can be transferred peacefully between political parties in America
Louisiana Purchase
The land acquisition in 1803 doubled the size of the United States- it came from France
Lewis and Clark
Led the expedition of scientific discovery through the territory west of the Mississippi
Sacajawea
She served as a guide and translator for the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Federalists
Political Party that believed in a strong government, industrial economy and a national bank
Democratic-Republicans
Political party that believed in a weaker government, agricultural economy and opposed the national bank
War of 1812
This produced American claims to the Oregon Territory, and increased American migration to Florida
War Hawks
These members of Congress supported war with Britain and wanted to gain Canada
Monroe Doctrine
Isolationist statement which claimed Americas were closed to further colonization
Missouri Compromise
This kept the balance of slave and free states and drew a "slave line" through the west
Battle of New Orleans
The outcome did not affect the war, but made Andrew Jackson a hero
Jay's Treaty
Agreement for British to withdraw military but leave trading posts
Judiciary Act of 1789
This law created the outline of the judicial branch
Whiskey Rebellion
Washington's first test of executive authority, farmers in Pennsylvania were refusing to pay an excise tax
Tariff
Tax on imported goods
Midnight Appointments
After Adams lost the election of 1800, he filled many judicial positions with Federalists
Washington, D.C.
Creating a new capital for the nation in the South as a compromise on Hamilton's economic programs
Embargo Act against Britain
President Jefferson responded to the crisis facing American shipping by British agitation
Second Bank of the United States
The Democratic-Republicans supported this bank, seeing its usefullness after the War of 1812.
Era of Good Feelings
Under President Monroe, political opposition to the Democratic-Republicans faded leaving only one major political party
Hamilton's Economic Plan
1) National government to assume states' war debts 2) Create a national bank 3) Encourage business and manufacturing 4) raise tariffs to protect business
Excise Tax
A tax on goods manufactured and sold within the United States
Nullification
The belief that a state could refuse to abide by a national law if that law harmed the state.
Sectionalism
The growing tension between the North and the South over economics, expansion and slavery.
"Strict Construction" of the Constitution
The interpretation that the government may do only those things listed in the Constitution.
"Loose Construction" of the Constitution
The interpretation that the government may use the implied powers of the Constitution
Embargo
Refusal to trade with another country
Adams-Onis Treaty
The purchase of Florida from Spain