german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Emphasized the importance of current environment influences on our growth potential and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
nature vs. nurture
the question involves which has more impact on our development; the traits we inherit or the environment that we live in
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
What is the main difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist?
psychiatrists are more likely to attend medical school and prescribe medication
A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agencey is most likely to be a...
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. "Out of sight, out of mind"
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Studyings the three attitudes means that scientists...
are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
double blind procedure
participants are uninformed about what treatment, if any, they are receiving and the research assistants are uninformed about which participants get which treatment
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
The laboratory environment is designed to...
re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
discerning human similarities and differences
Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) ________ perspective
Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.
mental life; observable behavior