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43 terms

PSY 101 H Chapter 1

Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
STUDY
PLAY
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; "the science of mental health"
Wilhelm Wundt
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Sigmund Freud
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
Margaret Floy Washburn
First Woman to receive PHD in psychology from Cornell in 1894
introspection
focusing on inner sensations, images, and feelings
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
humanistic psychology
Emphasized the importance of current environment influences on our growth potential and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance.
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Early psychology was seen as a mix of what two things?
physiology and philosophy
nature vs. nurture
the question involves which has more impact on our development; the traits we inherit or the environment that we live in
John B. Watson
founded behaviorism, "Little Albert"
B.F. Skinner
rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
neuroscience
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
behavior genetics
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
behavioral psychology
how we learn observable responses
cognitive psychology
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
social-cultural
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and culture
What is the main difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist?
psychiatrists are more likely to attend medical school and prescribe medication
A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agencey is most likely to be a...
clinical psychologist
nature is to nurture as
biology is to experience
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. "Out of sight, out of mind"
What three attitudes make modern science possible?
curiosity, skepticism, and humility
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Studyings the three attitudes means that scientists...
are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
double blind procedure
participants are uninformed about what treatment, if any, they are receiving and the research assistants are uninformed about which participants get which treatment
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
The laboratory environment is designed to...
re-create psychological forces under controlled conditions
The case study is a research method in which...
a single individual is studied in great depth
Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of
reactions to sensory stimulation
Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for
discerning human similarities and differences
Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) ________ perspective
Psychodynamic
Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?
Evolutionary
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
James
In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.
mental life; observable behavior
John Watson is to Wilhelm Wundt as ________ is to ________.
observable behavior; inner sensations
Behaviorists dismissed the value of
Introspection
The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors
positive expectations