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BIO 101 Chapter 7
Terms in this set (40)
effects from alleles of multiple genes that all contribute to the ultimate phenotype for a given characteristic
alternate versions of a gene
an individual who carries one allele for a recessive trait and does not exhibit the trait; if two carriers mate, they may produce offspring who do exhibit the trait
the case in which the heterozygote displays characteristics of both alleles
the breeding of organisms that differ on one or more traits
describes an allele that masks the phenotypic effect the other, recessive, allele for a trait; the phenotype shows the effect of the dominant allele in both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes
the genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; also, collectively, an organism's genetic composition
the greater resemblance of offspring to parents than to other individuals in the population, a consequence of the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring through their genes
describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles an individual carries differ from each other
describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles are the same
the case in which the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between those of the two homozygotes; an example is pink snapdragons, with an appearance intermediate between homozygous for white flowers and homozygous red flowers
genes that are close to each other on a chromosome and so are more likely than others to be inherited together
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
allele pairs for different genes separate independently in meiosis, so the inheritance of one trait generally does not influence the inheritance of another trait ( the exception, unknown to Mendel, occurs with linked genes)
Mendel's Law of Segregation
during the formation of gametes, the two alleles for a gene separate, so that half the gametes carry one allele, and half the gametes carry the other.
the case in which a single gene has more than two possible alleles
the genetics,a type of family tree that map the occurrence of a trait in a family often over many generations
the manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism
a phenomenon in which an individual gene influences multiple traits
describes a trait that is influenced by multiple different genes
a diagram showing the possible outcomes of a cross between two individuals; the possible crosses are shown in the manner of a multiplication table
describes an allele whose phenotypic effect is masked by a dominant allele for a trait
a trait controlled by a gene on a sex chromosome
a trait that is determined by instructions on only one gene; examples are a cleft chin, a widow's peak, and unattached earlobes
a mating in which a homozygous recessive individual is bred with individuals of unknown genotype, showing the dominant phenotype; this type of cross can reveal the unknown genotype by the observed characteristics, or the offspring
describes a population of organisms in which, for a given trait, the offspring of crosses of individuals within the population always show the same trait; for example, the offspring of pea plants that are true- breeding for round peas always have round peas
The law of segregation states that:
each of two alleles for a given trait segregate into different gametes.
Gregor Mendel bred two pea plants, one with purple flowers and one with white flowers and found that the next generation all had purple flowers. When he bred all of the plants in the generation with purple flowers, he found that the next generation had 3/4 purple flowers and 1/4 white flowers. What are the genotypes of the purple flowers of the last generation?
1 PP : 2 Pp
A cross between homozygous red-eyed flies and homozygous white-eyed flies results in progeny that all have red-eyes. This result demonstrates:
On human chromosome 11 there is a gene called DRD4. This gene carries the instructions for building a protein that is receptor for the brain chemical dopamine. There are two different alleles, C and T.
Subjects in a study (with known DRD4 genotypes) responded to a questionnaire on temperament and character. Based on the graph shown above, what conclusion might you draw about an individual with two C alleles?
they would be more likely to exhibit novelty-seeking traits
consists of the observable properties of an individual.
A diploid individual with two identical alleles for a particular gene is said to be
homozygous for that gene.
In snapdragons, there is an allele for flower color, CW, that produces no pigment. A plant with the genotype CWCW will produce _____________ flowers.
In pea plants, purple flower color is dominant to white flower color. If two pea plants that are true-breeding for purple flowers are crossed, in the offspring:
all of the flowers will be purple.
Albinism (lack of skin and hair pigmentation) is caused by a recessive autosomal allele. A woman and man, both normally pigmented, have an albino child together. For this trait, what is the genotype of the albino child?
Which term refers to the genetic control of continuously varying traits such as height?
Most genes come in alternative forms called:
The phenotype of an organism is:
its physical characteristics.
We say that genes are linked when:
they are located near each other on a single chromosome.
How can an individual carry a defective gene but not exhibit the defective phenotype?
Individuals carry two copies of gene instructions, and one dominant allele could mask the presence of a recessive defective allele
A person with the genotype AB can receive blood of what type?
all types of blood
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