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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Mrs. Stephenson--Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Terms in this set (55)
prior to the scientific revolution, scholars decided what was true based on _____________
scholars decided what was true also from referencing texts from where?
rome or Greece
the belief that the earth was the center of the universe
who supported the geocentric theory
polish astronomer who explored the idea of a heliocentric theory
what is another name for a sun centered solar system
after how many years did people realize that the planets revolve around the sun
Italian scientist who studied the new theories on astronomy
Galileo Galilei built an improved _________ in year _______
Galileos first book in 1610 was called what?
Galileo was summoned to Rome to stand trial in 1633 for what?
what was Galileos final punishment
English scientist who studied math and physics at Cambridge University
Every object in the universe attracts every other object
law of universal gravitation
a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Ancient Greek philosopher who had never dissected humans
what did Galen dissect
who dissected human corpses
introduced the worlds first vaccine for smallpox
new discoveries replaced old assumptions, collective European thought changed forever....this is called
scientific revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world based on __________
Boyle challenged Aristotle assertion that the physical world consisted of four elements __________
earth, air, fire, water
what 4 advances in sciences led to new ways of considering other aspects of society?
government, education, economics, religion
enlightenment or _______
the age of reason
the enlightenment was a revolutionary intellectual movement that stressed ______ and ______ and _______ to solve problems
reason free, thought, power of individual
who was the oldest and supported absolute monarchy and believed all people were evil and selfish? (leviathan)
whose idea was the social contract?
thomas hobbes then rousseau
human hands over basic rights to a ruler to gain law and order
who believed the ruler needed complete control over people because humans act out of self interest?
who believed people were good or bad and people could learn from their mistakes and evolve, SELF GOVERNMENT, believed people are born free?
LOCKE UP YOUR NATURAL RIGHTS
what are john lockes 3 natural rights?
life property liberty (LPL)
enlightenment reached its peak when and where?
france and mid 1700s
people that believed humans could apply reason to all aspects of life, similarly to the way scientists had applied reason to science
where was the center for social critics, or philosophies?
what are the 5 core concepts of the philosophies?
reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty (RNHPL)
truth could be discovered through logic and critical thinking
what was natural was good and reasonable
humans should find joy on earth and not just seek happiness in the afterlife
society and humanity could improve and evolve
believed in liberties won through bill of rights 1689 and the glorious revolution
who has a nickname of "voltaire"?
francois marie arouet
who fought more towards tolerance, reason, religious freedom, and freedom of speech?
who was a influential French writer devoted to study of political liberty?
baron de montesquieu
Montesquieu looked to _______ as the most balanced example of government
Montesquieu ideas on ______ and _______ served as basis of the US constitution
separation power, checks and balances
French philosophe committed to individual freedom and believed that the only good government was one freely formed by the people or direct democracy
Italian philosophe believed laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes
argued for reform of what 4 crimes
speedy trial, abolish torture, punishment fitting crime, abolishment capital punishment
what are the 3 long term effects of the enlightenment?
belief in progress, a more secular outlook, importance of individual
______ became an intellectual Mecca, with the brightest minds of the age coming to the city to exchange ideas and philosophize
_____ gatherings hosted by wealthy woman of Paris, etc.
the successes of scientific revolution led people to believe they could also solve social problems through reason, philosophers argued for the abolition of slavery, greater social equality, and more democratic goverment
belief in progress
rise in non religious outlook, people began to question teachings of church, encouraged tolerance of other beliefs and religions
a more secular outlook
people began looking inward for guidance rather than to institutions like the church, philosophies encouraged people to use their own ability to reason to judge right from wrong
importance of individual
Recommended textbook explanations
World History Patterns of Interaction
Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Larry S. Krieger, Linda Black, Phillip C. Naylor, Roger B. Beck
Modern World History
Anthony Esler, Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis
Holt McDougal World History
This set is often in folders with...
Mrs. Holmes-- Vocab Exam
Mrs. Stephenson-- Chapter 29
Mrs. McClure-- Chapter 4 Test
Mrs. Stephenson-- Chapter 30
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