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________ in film emulsion absorb the x-radiation during xray exposure and store the energy from the radiation
silver halide crystals
intraoral film speeds
D, F......f speed film reduces patient exposure to radiation by 60% compared with d speed
__________ transform xray energy into visible light, which in turn exposes the screen film
special type of photographic film used to make an identical copy of an intraoral or extraoral radiograph
chemical solution used in development process to reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals
disease transmission may occur as a result of
direct contact with pathogens in saliva, blood, respiratory secretions, lesions...indiret contact with contaminated objects or instruments....direct contact with airborne contaminants present in spatter or aerosols or oral and respiratory fluids
3 conditions for infection control to occur
susceptible host, pathogen with suffiencient infectivity and numbers to cause infection
film is placed in mouth, parallel to long axis of tooth, central ray is directed perpendicular to film and long axis of tooth
5 basic rules of paralleling technique
film must cover prescribed area, film positioned parallel to long axis of tooth, central ray directed perpendicular to film and long axis of tooth, central ray directed through contact areas between teeth, and xray beam centered over film to ensure all areas of film are being exposed
advantages of paralleling technique
produces images with dimensional accuracy,simple and easy to learn and use, easy to standardize, and can be accurately repeated
in bisecting technique:
film placed along lingual surface of tooth, where film contacts tooth-plane of film and long axis of tooth form an angle, imaginary bisector divides the angle in half or bisects it, and central ray of xray beam is directed perpendicular to the imaginary bisector
crowns of maxillary and mandibular teeth, interproximal areas, and areas of crestal bone on the same film
occlusals used for:
localization of rooths, impacted teeth, foreign bodies, salivary stones; eval of size fo lesions, boundaries of maxillary sinus, and jaw fractures; exam of patients who cannot open their mouths; measurments of changes in size and shape of jaw
localization used for:
determining the buccal-lingual relationship of an object or to locate foreign bodies, impacted and unerupted teeth, retained roots, root positions, salivary stones, jaw fractures, broken needles and instruments, and filling matterials
purpose of paralleling technique
aind in the diagnosis of diseases, lesions, and conditions that can not be identified clinically
interproximal surfaces of crowns of upper and lower and crestal bone, open contacts only-no overlap, vertical bitewing used on anteriors
FMX (Full mouth survey)
both BW and PA, taken once every 3-5 yrs, average adult has 18-20 films (14-16 Pa and 4-6 bw)
contains silver halide crystals, silver bromide, silver iodide
80-90% silver bromide, 1-10% iodide....suspended in gel
if film packet is placed backwards in mouth, the foil is visible on a developed radiograph
intensifying screen crystal, gives off blue light and must pair with blue-sensitive film
rare earth phosphors
intensifying screen-crystal, gives off green light and must pair with green-sensitive film
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