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Chapters 6,27,16,17,19,18,21,27,15,7,9

three components of xray machine

tubehead, extension arm, and control panel

four components of xray film

film base, adhesive layer, film emulsion, and protective layer

________ in film emulsion absorb the x-radiation during xray exposure and store the energy from the radiation

silver halide crystals

invisible pattern on emulsion

latent image

three types of film used in dental radiography

intraoral film, extraoral film, duplicating film

intraoral film sizes

0,1,2,3,4--larger the number, larger the size

intraoral film speeds

D, F......f speed film reduces patient exposure to radiation by 60% compared with d speed

__________ transform xray energy into visible light, which in turn exposes the screen film

intensifying screens

special type of photographic film used to make an identical copy of an intraoral or extraoral radiograph

duplicating film

5 steps in film processing

development, rinsing, fixation, washing, and drying

chemical solution used in development process to reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals


developer solution 4 basic ingredients

developing agent, perservative, accelerator, and restrainer

fixer solution 4 basic agents

fixing agent, preservative, hardening agent, and acidifier

disease transmission may occur as a result of

direct contact with pathogens in saliva, blood, respiratory secretions, lesions...indiret contact with contaminated objects or contact with airborne contaminants present in spatter or aerosols or oral and respiratory fluids

3 conditions for infection control to occur

susceptible host, pathogen with suffiencient infectivity and numbers to cause infection

minimum ppe's

protective attire, care of hands

film is placed in mouth, parallel to long axis of tooth, central ray is directed perpendicular to film and long axis of tooth

paralleling technique

anterior teeth film size


posterior teeth size film


5 basic rules of paralleling technique

film must cover prescribed area, film positioned parallel to long axis of tooth, central ray directed perpendicular to film and long axis of tooth, central ray directed through contact areas between teeth, and xray beam centered over film to ensure all areas of film are being exposed

which teeth should you always start with in paralleling technique


advantages of paralleling technique

produces images with dimensional accuracy,simple and easy to learn and use, easy to standardize, and can be accurately repeated

bisecting technique used to expose

periapical films

in bisecting technique:

film placed along lingual surface of tooth, where film contacts tooth-plane of film and long axis of tooth form an angle, imaginary bisector divides the angle in half or bisects it, and central ray of xray beam is directed perpendicular to the imaginary bisector

film size used with bisecting

2--positioned vertically for anterior and horizontally for posterior

incorrect horizontal angulation results in


correct vertical angulation has the tooth...

the same size as the film


excessive vertical angulation, tooth is shortened


insufficient vertical angulation, tooth is longer

bite-wing includes

crowns of maxillary and mandibular teeth, interproximal areas, and areas of crestal bone on the same film

four sizes of film

0,1,2,3...size 2 recommended


large areas of upper or lower jaw

size film used


occlusals used for:

localization of rooths, impacted teeth, foreign bodies, salivary stones; eval of size fo lesions, boundaries of maxillary sinus, and jaw fractures; exam of patients who cannot open their mouths; measurments of changes in size and shape of jaw

localization used for:

determining the buccal-lingual relationship of an object or to locate foreign bodies, impacted and unerupted teeth, retained roots, root positions, salivary stones, jaw fractures, broken needles and instruments, and filling matterials

2 Types of localization

buccal object rule
(Same=Lingual, Opposite=Buccal)
Right angle technique

dental radiographs should always be mounted when

immediately after processing

purpose of paralleling technique

aind in the diagnosis of diseases, lesions, and conditions that can not be identified clinically

Periapical (PA)

entire tooth and supporting structure, 2-3mm of bone around apex needed

bite-wing (BW)

interproximal surfaces of crowns of upper and lower and crestal bone, open contacts only-no overlap, vertical bitewing used on anteriors

occlusal film sizes

2 (kids) and 4 (adults)

intraoral film sizes

0-child, 1-narrow anterior, 2-adult, 3-preformed bitewing, 4-occlusal

routine bite-wings

2,4, or 6 film set, taken every 6 months, 1 year, or 2 years

FMX (Full mouth survey)

both BW and PA, taken once every 3-5 yrs, average adult has 18-20 films (14-16 Pa and 4-6 bw)

only use bisecting when

absolutely cannot get film parallel to the teeth

paralleling technique is also known as

long gone, right angle, extension cone


most common, 3 colors...(extension cone paralleling)

horizontal angulations in paralleling

centrals=0, molar=80-90, premolar=70-80. canine=45


bony growth on top of mouth


mandibular growths

edentulous spaces

no teeth

bisecting is also known as

the short cone technique

unguided film holders

snap-a-ray, stabe, bite tabs

vertical angulation of bisecting

central ray perpendicular to film and long axis of tooth

horizontal angulation of bisecting

central ray through contact areas of teeth

Before processing


after processing


film base

made of clear cellulose aceptate, transparent, blue tint

adhesive layer

covers both sides fo film base, serves to attach film enulsion to both sides of base


contains silver halide crystals, silver bromide, silver iodide
80-90% silver bromide, 1-10% iodide....suspended in gel

protective layer

thin coating that protects from scratches and damage

intraoral film

emulsion on both sides because requires less radiation

the larger the crystals...

the faster the film speed

speed a-f

slowest to fastest
D&F are only available

lead foil prevents



if film packet is placed backwards in mouth, the foil is visible on a developed radiograph

cephalometric film

shows bones of face and skull and the soft tissue palate

intensifying screen

used with external radiography on one side of the film

Calcium Tungstate

intensifying screen crystal, gives off blue light and must pair with blue-sensitive film

rare earth phosphors

intensifying screen-crystal, gives off green light and must pair with green-sensitive film

duplicating film

emulsion on one side, exposed to light it will turn light after developing

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