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What do we need a microscope for?

To see microorganisms

How many lenses does a simple microscope have?


What is light microscopy?

Microscopes that use visible light to observe specimen

What are the types of light microscopy?

Compound, Darkfield, Phase-contrast, Fluorescence

What two things magnify an image on a compound microscope?

Objective lens and a ocular lens

How do you solve for total magnification?

Objective lens x ocular lens

What is resolution?

The ability of the lenses to distinguish two points

What is a refractive index?

measure of the light-bending ability of a medium

How does brightfield illumination work?

Dark objects visible against a bright background

What is darkfield illumination?

Light objects visible against a dark background

What is phase-contrast microscopy? What does it allow you to see?

Diffraction of light that passes through a specimen; internal structures

What is differential interference contrast microscopy?

Same as phase-contrast but with two beams of light

What kind of light does fluorescence microscopy use?

UV light

How does a fluorescent microscope work with fluorescent substances?

Fluorescent substances absorb the UV light

In confocal microscopy, what are the cells stained with?

Fluorochrome dyes.

What kind of wavelengths and what color light is used in confocal microscopy

Short wavelengths and blue light

What dimension does a confocal microscope produce?


In electron microscopy, shorter wavelengths of electrons gives greater what?


What can specimen be stained in with electron microscopy?

Heavy metal salts

According to Atul Gawande, what's the most preferred method of hand washing?

Alcohol wash

What does staining a specimen do?

Colors the microbe and emphasizes structures

What is a smear?

Thin film of microbes on a slide

What does it mean to 'fix' a smear?

Heat it as to kill the bacteria

The chromophore in a basic dye is a(n)?


The chromophore in an acidic dye is a(n)?


What is the definition of staining the background instead of the cell?

Negative staining

What is a simple stain?

Single basic dye

What does a mordant do?

Holds/coats the specimen to enlarge it

What are differential stains used for?

Distinguish between bacteria

Gram stain classifies bacteria into what two groups?

Gram-positive and gram-negative

Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to what?


Gram-positive bacteria tend to be killed by what?

Penicillin and detergents

What is an acid-fast stain?

Used to identify mycobacterium

Negative staining is useful for?


Heat is required to drive a stain into?


Why does flagella staining require a mordant?

To make the flagella wide enough to see

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