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Federal meat inspection act
-inspection of all meat sold from livestock (cattle, sheep, swine, goats, equids)

FMIA Exemptions

1. slaughter of own animals not for $
2. grocery stores
3. someone who buys meat outside US for self

generic FDA rule

all food sold commercially must come from an "approved source"


poultry products inspection act
covers poultry


porcine stress syndrome

DFD pork

dark firm dry pork
stress prior to slaughter + adrenaline causes premortem glycogen depletion in muscles
- reduction in lactic acid = high pH
-more likely to spoil

PSE Pork

pale soft exudative pork
high stress pre-slaughter
rapid postmortem intracellular glycolysis causes inc in lactic acid = low pH = muscle denaturation

subject to inspection

animal is bought by plant operator, subject to passing inspection. seller is only paid for those parts passing inspection.


refers to the ultimate handling of a carcass or its parts according to current regulations

the 4 Ds

dead, dying, diseased, disabled

when you can hold animal for possible recovery

1. post-parturient, until placenta passes
2. downer cattle, 24h in case stressed

tuberculosis affects


brucellosis affects

cattle, pigs, goats, sheep

"T" on the left hip of cattle

react to TB skin test

TB reactors


"B" on the left hip of animal

positive for brucellosis

Brucella melitensis goats

not slaughtered

Brucella infected cattle or pigs

must be sent to slaughter within 15 days
considered safe

exception to humane slaughter of livestock (only for "stun before sticking" part)

ritual slaughter

aim captive bolt (or firearms) at this part of a goat's head

the back...behind the horns

firearms acceptable

large caliber gun
small caliber + hollow/exploding bullets

CO2 can only be used to kill one animal (stun others)


PPIA legislation on poultry slaughter

requires "good commercial practices"

common sources of meat contamination during dressing

soil on hide, rumen contents, feces

dressing a carcass

-head removed


absorb blood from surface of carcass; act as insulators

scalded @ 140 degrees F for 5-6 min to loosen hair, hooves, epidermis

swine carcass

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