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109 terms

Principles of Behavior ch 2

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biological psychology
branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behavior
neuroscience
the relationship between that brain and behavior
neuron
basic building block of the nervous system
cell body
neurons life support center, nourishes cells, packs proteins
axon
fiber extending from cell body that carries outgoing messages
tract
group of axons bundled together that carry information to a specific area
myelin sheath
layer of fatty substance on axon that speeds up the transmission
MS
a disease caused by a degeneration of myelin for unknown causes
sensory neurons
these are at the dorsal side of spinal cells
motor neurons
these are at the ventral (front) side of spinal cells
interneurons
the neurons between the sensory and motor neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another
sensory
______ neurons collect from sense organs and carry the messages to the spinal cord or brain
afferent
sensory neurons are aka.......
motor
______ neurons carry messages from spinal cord or brain to the muscles/ glands
neural impulse
method of communication between neurons
electrical
a neural impulse is an _______ charge that travels down the axon causing the neuron to fire
action potential
the electrically charged impulse that allows the neuron to communicate with other neurons
intra
A- and K+ are in the _______-cellular fluid
extra
Cl- and Na+ are in the _______-cellular fluid
dendrites
neurotransmitters bind to the __________
re-polarization
K+ contributes to ___________
depolarization
Na+ contributes to ___________
negative
at rest, neurons have a small _______ electrical charge
polarization
when the cell is at a state of rest, it's called ________
graded potential
when some sodium enters, but not enough to cause the neuron to fire
depolarizes
entrance of the positive ions into the cell body _______ the cell
open
channels = _______ when cell is at rest
closed
gate = _______ when cell is at rest
pumps
these pump Na and k in out and of cell
3, out
when the pumps are at work, ___ Na ions are pumped _____
2, in
when the pumps are at work, ___ K ions are pumped _____
sodium
these channels open first
relative refractory
could go off if it gets enough stimulus, but it takes more than usual
absolute refractory
impossible for cell to fire again, hyperpolarization. more negative than in the beginning
nodes
______ are the site of action potential down the axon- gates are there
terminal button
tip of axon where neural impulse moves to the next synapse
synapse
gap between axon tip of one neuron and dendrite of the next
vesicle
sacs filled with NT that release the NT into the synapse
synaptic gap
site of all learning
excitatory synapse
synapse at which a NT causes the receiving cell to fire
inhibitory synapse
synapse at which a NT causes the receiving cell to stop firing
selective seratonin repuptake inhibitor
SSRI stands for....
drugs
synthesized molecules that are similar enough to a specific NT, so they into receptor site
parkinsons
this disease occurs because of loss of dopamine
skitsophrenia
disease caused by too much dopamine
fires
agonist- excitatory synapse
stop firing
agonist- inhibitory synapse
stop firing
antagonist- excitatory synapse
fires
antagonist- inhibitory synapse
acetylcholine
NT that triggers muscle contraction, memory
dopamine
NT involved with voluntary mvmt, learning, memory, and emotions
serotonin
NT involved with mood, depression, sleep, appetite
endorphins
NT that acts as natural oplate released in response to pain and vigorous exercise
CNS
the brain and the spinal cord are the major components of the _________
central core
earliest part of the brain to develop, performs most basic functions
hindbrain
point where the spinal cord enters the skull, contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
cerebellum
part of brain involved with balance and coordinating the body's actions, prioritizes incoming stimuli
thalamus
part of the brain that gets all incoming sensory relay signals
pons
part of the brain responsible for 24 sleep-wake cycle
reticular formation
part in central core that is responsible for arousal
limbic system
communicates emotions to places where interpretation and cognitive processes occur
hippocampus
part of the brain responsible for formation of new memories
amygdala
governs emotions related to self preservation such as rage and fear
cerebral cortex
this area of the brain is more highly developed in humans than in any other animal
central fissure
runs sideways from ear to ear and separates the primary somatosensory cortex from the primary motor cortex
left
the side of the cerebral cortex responsible for language
right
the side of the cerebral cortex responsible for spatial navigation
prosopagnosia
inability to recognize faces
occipital
the _____ lobe receives and processes visual info
temporal
the _______ lobe regulates hearing, smell, balance, equilibrium, motion, motivation, and some language
prosopagnosia
this is a result of damage to the temporal lobe
neglect
this is a result of damage to the parietal lobe
phineas gage
this is a result of damage to the frontal lobe
parietal
the ______ lobe receives sensory info from body and regulates spatial and mathematical abilities
frontal
the __________ lobe performs executive functions- receives and coordinates messages from the other three lobes and plays a key role in personality, motivation, persistence, affect, and character
hypothalamus
the _______ sends the message that engages the sympathetic nervous system
cortisol
the hormone released during arousal
saliva
where is cortisol measurable
peripheral
the ________ nervous system contains the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
autonomic
the ________ nervous system controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands
somatic
the ________ nervous system controls voluntary actions such as writing, reaching, etc
under, sympathetic
psychopaths experience ______ arousal of the _____ system
parathyroid
4 tiny glads in brain- excitability
endocrine
this is the chemical communication system which consists of glands that secrete hormones in the blood stream
thyroid
this gland produces thyroxine and controls the metabolism
pineal gland
located at the top of the brain, this glad makes melatonin and regulates sleep-wake cycle
pancreas
gland that makes insuline and glucose
pituitary gland
under brain, gets axons to body
adrenal gland
this gland releases epinepherine and norepinepherine
hormones
these are produced by endocrine glands and occur when one tissue can influence another
sympathetic
this is the system responsible for what happens during arousal, fight or flight
parasympathetic
when threat is gone and body is returning to a normal state
soma
cell body, contains the nucleus
axon terminals
short fibers at the end of the axon
antagonist
chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals to NTs
glutamine
NT involved in learning and memory
reuptake
process that sends most NTs back into synaptic vesicles
neuroplasticity
ability to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in the brain in response to experience and even trauma
EEG
records the electrical activity activity of the neurons just below the skull
CT scan
series of x rays, show stroke damage, tumors, injuries, etc
PET scan
detects activity of brain cells by looking at radioactive glucose use
limbic system
contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala
hypothalamus
regulates body temp, thirst, hunger, sleeping and waking, sexual activity, and emotions
corpus callosum
thick, tough band of neural fibers that allows the left and right hemispheres to communicate
somatosensory cortex
processes info from skin and internal body receptors for touch, temp, and body position
motor cortex
controls mvmt of body's voluntary muscles by sending commands out to the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system
association areas
making connections between the sensory info coming into brain and stored memories, images, and knowledge
aphasia
refers to an inability to use or understand either written or spoken language
mirror neurons
fires when an animal observes the same action (that they're performing) being performed by another animal