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8th Grade Language Arts - Literature Terms: Milestones Study Guide
Terms in this set (92)
(bad guy) the character who works against the protagonist in the story
(good guy) the principal character in a work of fiction
character that DOES NOT experience changes throughout the plot of the story.
character that experience changes throughout the plot of the story.
The author's purpose is either to persuade, inform, or entertain. Remember: PIE
the most important thing a paragraph or passage tells about a topic
the context and environment in which something is set
the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.
the beginning of the story, when characters and setting is introduced.
a struggle between opposing forces
conflict is introduced, events leading up to the climax.
the turning point in a novel or play
events after the climax, leading to the resolution
finding a solution to a problem
A vocabulary strategy in which the reader looks at words around an unfamiliar word to find clues to its meaning.
Cause and Effect
A method of informing that shows the reason something happens and the result of it happening
Problem/Solution A text structure that presents a problem and offers one or more solutions to solve the problem.
Compare and Contrast
Find the similarities and differences between two things
time order; the order in which important events happen in a story
Writing or speech that appeals to one or more of the 5 senses (touch, taste, sight, sound, smell)
Your thesis sentence is where you put your claim
Argument is making a claim and supporting it using logic.
Facts that support your claim.
A statement that explains how the evidence supports and connects to the claim.
Challenging the argument by addressing the position of someone
The part that comes after the counter claim is the refutation.
A short interesting and relevant story
Another name for refutation
Another name for counter-agrument
Point of view
it gives the perspective in which a story is told
1st person point of view
the voice that is telling the story is a character who is part of the action and uses the first-person pronouns I, me, and my. The reader sees everything through this character's eyes.
2nd person point of view
the voice that is telling the story is addressing the reader and using pronouns like you, your, yours; examples: messages, emails, presentations, business and technical writing
3rd person point of view
third-person point of view the narrator is someone outside the action, rather than a character. Using pronouns like them, they, he, she, etc. and includes character's names.
a biography of yourself
a non fiction text about a person's live
a conversation between two people
commonly used phrases that are not literal but figurative, ie. "To kick the bucket."
a comparison using like or as
a comparison NOT using like or as
giving an animal or object human-like characteristics
repetition of consonant sounds. ex: peter piper picked a pile of pickle peppers
an over exaggeration
a feeling/emotion towards a word
dictionary definition of a word
the use of words whose sound suggests their meaning.
a scene that interrupts the action of a work to show a previous event
the opposite of what is expected
speaker says the opposite of the intended meaning or does not literally mean what he says
author shows contrast in a situation between what is expected to happen and what really happens.
author gives reader information that the characters do NOT know.
a traditional story accepted as history
a brief story that leads to a moral, often using animals as characters
a tale or legend originating and traditional among a people, typical passed to one generation to another
a story that is not true or is made up
writing that tells about real people, places, and events
the author's message to the reader
something that stands for something else, a deeper meaning
a word that means the same as another word
a word that means the opposite of another word
Prefixes are groups of letters that can be placed before a word to alter its meaning.
a group of letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning
main part of the word
figure of speech that makes a reference to place, person, or something that happened, an indirect mention.
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
Words pronounced the same, but have a different spelling or meaning (ex -"write" and "right")
A word spelled exactly like another word, but having a different meaning
the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, or toward the audience (the readers).
the feeling created in a reader by a literary work or passage, MOOD=ME
a literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent more abstract ideas; Santa Clause, for instance, can be an allegory for generocity.
a person, place, or thing
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, etc. Many adverbs end in "-ly".
describes the noun
words that show location and time
is formed from a verb (but not a verb), and acts like a different part of speech
type of verbal: can end in "-ing", "-end", & "-ed", acts like an adjective, which describes the subject. You can modify the sentence's subject and participle with the adverb "a", because participles are adjective. Ex: a -wailing whale. Also, can be taken out of the sentence and still make sense.
type of verbal: ending in "-ing" and acts like a noun, ask yourself "what". CAN NOT be taken out of the sentence and still make sense. Ex: Dancing like a ballerina is my goal.
type of verbal: uses the word "to + a verb", can act like a adjective, adverb, and noun. Example: To blow bubbles during class is a serious form of disrespect.
Indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive.
The indicative mood is used to make a statement or ask a question. Most sentences are in the indicative mood.
form of the verb that makes direct commands and requests
a verb mood that expresses a question
indicates a conditional state that will cause something else to happen.
A grammatical situation involving the words "if" and "were," setting up a hypothetical situation.
an account of the author's personal experiences
The subject of the sentence performs the action
Sentence construction in which the subject does not do the action expressed by the verb; rather the subject is acted upon.
a simple sentence has one independent clause.
a compound sentence has two independent clauses, conjunction (FANBOYS - coordinating conjunctions), or semi colon.
a complex sentence contains a independent clause and a dependent clause, combined with a subordinating conjunctions.
a compound-complex sentence has two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
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