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Chapter 4 Key Terms
Terms in this set (33)
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time.
An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water.
A biome prevailing at approximately 30° N and 30° S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.
A layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side.
A zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
The percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature.
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation.
A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands.
An impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil.
The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
The heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume.
A forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
The deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth.
A coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation. A warm and wet biome found between 20° N and 20° S of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation.
The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60° N and 60° S and sinks at the poles, 90° N and 90° S.
temperate grassland/cold desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
tropical seasonal forests
A biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rainforests and dominated by deciduous trees.
The layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.