BIO 101 Chapter 9
Terms in this set (33)
A behavior that comes at a cost to the individual performing it and benefits another.
Any and all of the actions performed by an organism, often in response to its environment or to the actions of another organism.
An action or signal on the part of one organism that alters the behavior of another organism.
The total reproductive output of an individual.
In sexually reproducing organisms, a member of the sex that produces the larger gamete.
fixed action pattern
An innate sequence of behaviors, triggered under certain conditions, that requires no learning, does not vary, and once begun runs to completion; an example is egg-retrieval in geese.
The process, extremely uncommon in nature, that brings about an increase in the frequency of alleles for traits (e.g., behaviors) that are beneficial to the persistence of the species or population while simultaneously being detrimental to the fitness of the individual possessing the trait (or engaging in the behavior).
A signal, which cannot be faked, that is given when both the individual making the signal and the individual responding to it have the same interests; it carries the most accurate information about an individual or situation.
The sum of an individual's indirect and direct fitness
the reproductive output that an individual brings about through apparently altruistic behaviors towards genetic relatives
Behaviors that do not require environmental input for their development. These behaviors are present in all individuals in a population and do not vary much from one individual to another or over an individual's life span; also known as instincts
Behaviors that do not require environmental input for their development. Instincts are present in all individuals in a population and do not vary much from one individual to another or over an individual's life span; also known as innate behaviors.
"Kindness" toward close relatives, which may evolve as apparently altruistic behavior toward them, but which in fact is beneficial to the fitness of the individual performing the behavior.
A type of communication in which arbitrary symbols represent concepts and grammar; a system of rules dictates how the symbols can be manipulated to communicate and express ideas.
The alteration and modification of behavior over time in response to experience.
In sexually reproducing organisms, a member of the sex that produces the smaller gamete.
Behavior by an individual that reduces the opportunity for that individual's mate to interact with other potential mates.
The pattern of mating behavior in a species, ranging from polyandry to monogamy to polygyny; mating systems are influenced by the relative amounts of parental investment by males and by females.
a mating system in which most individuals mate and remain with just one other individual
A food item or other item presented to a potential mate as part of courtship
A bond between an individual male and female in which they spend a high proportion of their time together, often over many years, sharing a nest or other refuge and contributing equally to the care of offspring.
Describes the fact that among species with internal fertilization in the female, a male cannot be 100% certain that any offspring a female produces are his.
Molecules released by an individual into the environment that trigger behavioral or physiological responses in other individuals.
A polygamous mating system in which individual females mate with multiple males
A mating system in which, for one sex, some individuals attract multiple mates while other individuals of that sex attract none; among the opposite sex, all or nearly all of the individuals are able to attract a mate
A mating system in which, among the males, some individuals attract multiple mates while other males attract none; among the females, all or nearly all of the individuals are able to attract a mate
behaviors that are learned easily by all , or nearly all, individuals of a species
Costly behavior directed toward another individual that benefits the recipient, with the expectation that, at some later time, the recipient will behave in a similar manner, "returning the favor."
Energy and material expended by an individual in the growth, feeding, and care of offspring.
The case in which the sexes of a species differ in size or appearance.
An external signal that triggers the innate behavior called a fixed action pattern
total reproductive output
The lifetime number of offspring produced by an individual
Behavior of scout honeybees that indicates, by the angle of the body relative to the sun and by physical maneuvers of various duration, the direction to a distant source of food
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