Science Chapter 14

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List the levels of organization in the human body from the smallest unit to the largest unit.
Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
Cell
The basic unit of structure and function in a living thing
Cell membrane
It forms the outside boundary of the cell
Nucleus
The control center that directs the cell's activities and contains the information that determines the cell's form and function.
Cytoplasm
The material within a cell apart from the nucleus in the cytoplasm. It is made of a clear, jellylike substance containing many cell structures called organelles.
What are some functions of cells?
Cells carry on the process that keep organisms alive. Cell functions include releasing energy, growing, reproducing and eliminating wastes.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Muscle tissue. What is its function?
It makes parts of your body move.
It's function is to contract, or shorten.
What is nervous tissue? What is its function?
Tissue that directs and controls the movement of muscles. It carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and other parts of the body.
What is connective tissue? List examples of connective tissue.
Provides support for your body and connects all its parts. Ex. Bone, fat, blood, and cartilage.
Epithelial tissue. List examples of epithelial tissue.
Covers the surfaces of your body inside and out. Ex. Skin and the lining of your digestive system.
Organ. List an example.
A structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue. Ex. Heart.
Organ system. List an example.
A group of organs that work together to perform a major function. Ex. The circulatory system.
Homeostasis
The process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.
List an example of how your body maintains homeostasis.
You shiver. You sweat. When your body needs water, you get thirsty. When your body needs energy, you get hungry.
Stress
The reaction of your body to potentially threatening, challenging, or disturbing events.
What body system releases adrenaline?
Your endocrine system releases this chemical into your blood stream
What does adrenaline do for your body?
It gives your body a burst of energy and prepares your body to take action.
Skeleton
Your framework that is made up of all the bones in your body.
How many bones make up the skeleton of a newborn?
About 275 bones
How many bones make up an adult's body?
206
Why is there a difference in the number of bones of a newborn and an adult?
As a baby grows, some of the bones in the body fuse together.
List the 5 major functions of the human skeleton.
It provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your organs, produces blood cells, and stores minerals (calcium and phosphorus) and other materials until your body needs them.
Vertebrae
26 small bones that make up your backbone
How does your skeleton allow you to move?
Most of the bones are associated with muscles. The muscles pull on the bones to make the body move.
What is made in the long bones of the arms and legs?
Blood cells
What minerals are stored in bone?
Calcium and phosphorus
Joint
A place in the body where two bones come together
List two kinds of joints
Immovable joints and movable joints
The 4 types of movable joints
hinge, ball and socket, pivot, gliding.
movement of hinge and example.
forward or backward motion. Ex. elbow; knee; fingers
movement of ball and socket and example.
up and down; backward and forward; shrugging in a circle. (greatest range in motion). Ex. shoulder; hip
movement of pivot joint and example.
one bone rotates around another. Ex. Neck
Movement of gliding joint.
One bone over another; most frequently used joints. Ex. Wrist, ankle
Ligaments
Strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints. (Bone to bone)
Cartilage
Connective tissue that is more flexible than bone
What does the word "skeleton" mean?
Comes from a Greek word meaning "a dried body"
What do living bones undergo?
growth and development
What is the body's longest bone?
Femur
Periosteum
Thin outer membrane that covers all the bone except the ends.
What two important structures enter and leave through the periosteum(membrane)?
Blood vessels and nerves
Compact bone. Where is it located?
A layer of hard and dense bone, located under the periosteum.
What runs through compact bone?
Small canals. These canals carry blood vessels and nerves from the bone's surface to the living cells within the bone.
Smooth muscles
Involuntary muscles that line the inside of many internal organs such as the stomach and blood vessels.
How do smooth muscles work?
Automatically to control certain movements inside your body.
How are smooth muscles different from skeletal muscles?
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