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Which of the statements below about hemoglobin's oxygen binding is INCORRECT:
-In any binding system, a sigmoidal ligand binding curve (like hemoglobin's for O2) indicates an allosteric effect where there is cooperative interaction between binding sites and generally indicates that a protein has more than one subunit.
-The binding of oxygen to hemoglobin in an example of positive cooperativity: Oxygen binding favors the T --> R transition switching hemoglobin from the low affinity for oxygen T-state to the high affinity for oxygen R-state.
-Oxygen binding causes a change in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin where hemoglobin changes quaternary structure from the T (tense) state that has a low affinity of oxygen to the R (relaxed) state that has a higher affinity of oxygen.
-The T --> R transition in hemoglobin subunits explains the difference in the oxygen affinities of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin.
-Hemoglobin's sigmoidal oxygen binding curve is due to the T --> R transition: The sigmoidal curve results because of the switch from a low affinity oxygen binding hyperbolic curve in the T-state to a high affinity oxygen binding hyperbolic curve in the R-state.
-The cooperative binding of O2 by hemoglobin is an example of an allosteric effect (Greek: allos, other stereos, solid or space). Allosteric effects, in which the binding of a ligand at one site affects the binding of another ligand at another site, generally require interactions among subunits of oligomeric proteins.
-The hemoglobin tetramer can bind 4 molecules of oxygen and because of its positive cooperativity, the fourth O2 molecule binds with 4-fold greater affinity than the first.